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Ch. 57 Diabetes

Pharmacology for Nurses

Gluconegenesis liver produces it own glucose supply
Islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon
Diabetes mellitus deficient gluscose metabolism form insufficient insulin secreting form the beta cell of the isletsof Langerhans
Gestational Diabetes Glucose intolerance with onset during pregancy
Gestational Diabetes treatment includes diet, exercise, and insulin; generally returns ti normal after delivery; higher risk for developing Type II DM
Type I Autoimmunue or idipathic; absolute insulin deficiency; hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis; juvenile onset
Type II Decreased insulin production or insulin resistance; obesity, sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity; adult onset- but not anymore
Type II the most common type – heredity and obesity play a large role. Some beta cell function with varying amounts of insulin secretion.
3 body systems involved in serum glucose regulation Liver, Pancreas, skeletal muscles
Criteria to Diagnose Diabetes Causal Plasma Glucose Test = >200 mg/dl without regard to meal
Criteria to Diagnose Diabetes Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) Test= 126 mg/ml after 8 hours of fasting
Lab Values Glucose = 70-100: Hypoglycemia <60
Lab Values Electrolytes; K= 3.5-5
Lab Values Hgb A1c = 7%; . Hgb A1c measures glycemic control for the previous 60-90 days – (it is basically a “tattle tale” for how the client has managed their blood sugar, what they have eaten)
Lab Values cholesterol; Triglycerides; People with Type II diabetes will tend to have high cholesterol and triglycerides
Complication of Diabetes MI, Atherosclerotic vascular disease, CVA, cataracts/ glaucoma. blindness, infections of leg/ foot ulcers. gastroparesis
Created by: emv2435