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Lymphocytes The fundamental unit of the immune system, 25% of the WBC
B cells Produce antibodies
Antibodies made out of proteins not cells
Antigens maker molecules that identify them as foreign
Humoral immunity form of immunity that responds to to antigens, such as bacteria and foreign tissue
T cells respond only to specific organism
3 types of T cells killer T cells, Helper T cells, suppressor T cells
Cell Mediates Immunity does not involve antibodies, activate lymphocytes that attack and destroy foreign material
Memory Cells once B cells and T cells have been activated by an antigen.
Function of memory cells ensure that the next time the body is exposed to the same antigen that produces the memory cell, the immune system kicks in to destroy it.
Natural immunity immunity that naturally exist, it is not antigen specific, it does not need previous exposure to an antigen. Present from birth.
IgG Antigodies that comes from the mother to the baby. antibodies the newborn receives from the mother making the baby immune to the same microbes the mom is immune.
IgA from the mother to the baby in the breast milk to protect the baby's stomach
passive immunity it is passed through mom to baby or it can be passes through serum obtained from other person who is immune to an specific infectious agent, protection for a few weeks.
active immunity triggered by vaccination or infection, it comes when the person is exposed to an specific infectious agent. short lived
acquired immunity A.K.A. adaptive immunity develops after exposure to specific antigens. , this immunity is acquired after B/T cells have been activated, slow response immunity, long lasting immunity, it can be active or passive.
4 Characteristics of immune responce 1. non self recognition, responce to only foreign antigens.2. production of new antigen-specific antibodies. 3. memory cells produce antibody-produce lymphocyte for faster future response. 4. autoregulation for prevdention of tissue destruction,overreact
4 exogenous ways injection, inhalation, absorption, ingestion
allergic reaction hypersensitive reaction of the immune system, marked by increased physiological response to an antigen after previous exposure.
sensitization exposure to antigens that can cause allergic reactions.
mast cells cells that are in several types of tissue, contain granules that are rich in histamine and heparin.
basophiles WBC that promote inflammation through the release of chemical mediators.
how do allergic reactions start antigen combines with antibodies or /mast cell/basophile resulting in hypersensitive reaction
type I hypersensitive reaction. anahylactic reaction, mediated by IgE, caused by exogenous antigens, onset within mintues, initiated by antibidies, cells involved basophiles/eosinophiles.
type II hypersensitive reaction. tissue specific, cytotoxic reaction IgG,IgM mediated, caused by cell surface antigens, onset within minutes to hrs, cells involved antibodies and complements, appearance lysis and necrosis
type III hypersensitive reaction immune complex reactions, IgG/Igm nediated, caused by viral antigen, onset 3-8 hrs, cells involved neutrophiles, intiated by antibodies , apperance edema, necrosis.
type IV hypersensitive reactions cell mediated/delayes reactions, none antibody mediated, caused by tissue and organs antigens, onset 48-72hrs, lymphocytes and monocytes involved, initiated by T cells, appearance erythema/sclerosis
degranulation and substances released release of internal substances of the mast cells and basophiles by releasing chemical mediators these are histamine, leukotrines, eosinophiles, neutrophiles, heparin, kinis, prostaglandins and thromboxane.
histamine is a protein released by mast cells and basophiles, it promotes vascular permeability, cause dilation of capillaries and venuoles and contraction of the smooth muscle and GI tract and contraction of the bronchial tree.
leukotrines the most potent broncoconstrictor, causes wheezes, also coauses coronary vasoconstriction and increase vascular permeability
eosiniphil the process of anaphylaxis attracts eosinophiles to the site of allergic inflammation. contain enzymed that can deactivate leukotrines.
cardiovascular effects range from mild hypotension to vascular collapse and profund shock, dysrythmias such as bradycardia are common, relate to hypoxia and lack of circulating fluid
gastrointestinal N/V, diarrhea and severe abdominal pain and cramping may pccur in a patient having an anaphylactic reaction. increased GI activity.
nervous system pt will have a feeling of impending doom due to the lack of gas exchange from the anaphylaxis, it may worse in confusion weakness, headache, syncope, seizures and coma
cutaneous the most visible sign that distinguish anahylaxis, signs caused by vasodilation induced by histamine. may see pruritus/erythema/urticaria/angioedema
pruritus itching
erythema redness
urticaria hives
angioedema significant swelling of the face, tounge, and deep tissues, reflect involvement of deep capillaries of the skin and mucus membranes
lupus autoimmune disease, caused by autoantibodies contribute to inflammation and damage of different organs and tissue thorughout the body. most common type of autoantibody is antinuclear antibodies (ANA)
lupus s/s extreme fatigue, painful and swollen joints, unexplained fever, skin rashes and kidney problems, butterfly rash
lupus systemic effects GI ulceration/hemorrage,abdominal pain,pancreatitis , cholecystitis,bowel infraction, ranal failure, anemia and clotting abnormalities, pericarditis, pluresy/plural effusions, skin rashes, behavioral changes-seizures-headaches-nausea-strokes.
scleroderma hardening of the skin, autoimmune that stimulates fibroblasts and increase the production of collagen. skin, organs and blood vessels can be affected.
localized scleroderma limited to the skin, and related tissues. localized scleroderma doesnt progress into systemic scleroderma.
raynauds phenomenon scleroderma present in face, neck, legs and forearms, pts with this condition mora than likely are going to develop severe organ involvement
diffuse scleroderma skin may thiken anywhere in the body, includng the trunk, organ involvement
most common cause of dead in transplant pts infection
rejection tissue from another person carrying non self markers and may be recognized as a foreign body
allografting donation of organs of people totally un related
isografting organ donation by identical twins
Created by: 649750235