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NU 624

Chemistry and Physics of Anesthesia - Exam 1 - Basics of Organic Chemistry

Nearly all drugs are composed of what types of substances? Organic substances
All organic materials are predominantly composed of what two elements? Carbon and hydrogen
What are the 4 different types of bonds that can connect molecules? Ionic, hydrogen, covalent, phosphorus
Organic compounds consist of what three types of chains? Straight, branched, cyclic
Organic compounds tend to form in tetrahedral geometry, consisting of [2/4/6/8] bonds. 4
How is a derivative compound formed? When a functional group is substituted into one or more outer positions in an organic compound
The metabolic removal of a methyl group is called ______________. Demethylation
The metabolic removal of an ester group is called ______________. Ester hydrolysis
Give an example of a hepatic enzyme. CYP450
Give an example of a plasma enzyme. Plasma cholinesterase
Specific atoms atoms are added to the skeletons of _______________ to create unique compounds and drugs. Organic functional groups
Name the different functional groups discussed in class: Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, ethers, esters, ketones, amides, amines
Alkanes are made up of only two elements, what are they? Carbon and hydrogen
How many bonds form between the carbon and hydrogen atoms in an alkane? 1
Water is a [polar/nonpolar] substance. Polar
Alkane is a nonpolar substance, therefore it [will/will not] dissolve well in water. Will not. Polar dissolves polar, nonpolar dissolves nonpolar
Give one example of an alkane. Methane
Why is methane important? It is the primary molecule for which the volatile anesthetics are based upon.
What are the lipid and water characteristics of alkanes? Lipophilic, hydrophobic
Why are alkanes referred to as aliphatic hydrocarbons? They resemble animal fats and plant oils.
What are the three different types of molecular structures for alkanes? cyclic, chained, branched
How many bonds form between carbon atoms in an alkene? 2
Give two examples of alkenes. Propylene, ethylene
What are two types of uses of alkenes in everyday life? Cosmetics, flammable gas
How many bonds form between carbon atoms in an alkyne? 3
Alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes are [hydrophobic/hydrophilic]. hydrophobic
Alkynes are soluble in what types of solutions? organic solvents
Alkynes have a (higher/lower) density than water. Lower
The boiling temperature of an alkyne is dependent on the number of ___________ atoms that it has. carbon
What is the functional group of an alcohol? hydroxyls
An alcohols contains a hydroxyl group bonded to what type of molecule? Alkyl carbon
What is a hydrocarbon? A compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon atoms.
What type of atom is absent in an alkyl hydrocarbon? One atom of hydrogen
How does methane (CH4-methane) transform to become an alkyl radical? By removing one atom of hydrogen (CH3-methyl)
Give examples of 3 different ether based volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane (methyl ethyl ether), desflurane (methyl ethyl ether), sevoflurane (methyl isopropyl ether)
An ether is formed by dehydrating two _______________ molecules so that the remaining alkyls are bonded to a single oxygen atom. hydroxyl (or alcohol group)
What was the first anesthetic agent to be used in dental then surgical procedures? Diethyl ether
Esters are formed by dehydrating one _________ and one _________. Alcohol, acid
Give 1 example of an ester local anesthetic. Procaine
Hydrolyzing an ester will create what two substances? Alcohol and acid
What is the functional chemical group of an ester? Carbonyl group
Why are procaine and tetracaine not commonly used in anesthesia? They are most commonly associated with allergic reactions
What does the molecular structure of a ketone consist of? A carbon atom: double bonded to 1 oxygen atom, two single bonds to two separate carbon atoms
Give two examples of ketone type medications. Methadone and ketamine
An amide is a functional group whereby a ___________ group is attached to a _________ atom. carbonyl, nitrogen
Which two organic functional groups contain the nitrogen atom? amines and amides
Give one example of an amide local anesthetic. Lidocaine
What is an alkyl group? A group formed by the removal of a hydrogen atom from its parent structure (methyl-CH3, is the alkyl group of methane-CH4)
How many hydrogen atoms are attached to nitrogen to make ammonium? 4
How are amines formed? By substituting a hydrocarbon radical to one or more of the hydrogens in an ammonium molecule.
How many classifications of amines are there? 4
What does each classification of amine represent? The number of carbon atoms bonded to the nitrogen atom of an ammonium.
What is the most important property of an amine? Their basicity
Of the four classifications of amines, which is the only type that does not cross biologic membranes? Quaternary amines
What class of medications are quaternary amines? Neuromuscular blocking drugs
Which anticholinergic is also a quaternary amine? Glycopyrrolate
True/False: Medications that cross biologic membranes produce CNS effects. True
What two local anesthetics have primary, secondary, and tertiary amines? Lidocaine and nesacaine
What type of amine does atropine have and what impact does that have on its ability to cause CNS symptoms? Tertiary amine. Tertiary amines can cross biologic membranes therefore they will cause CNS effects
Created by: philip.truong