Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Pharmacology

Respiratory Care Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
What are the indications for Catecholamine 1. Relief of acute reversible airflow obstruction- relaxation of smooth muscle 2. Increased ciliary motility
Side Effects for sympathomimetic bronchodilators 1. Hypersensitivity to the drug 2. Tremors 3. Increase HR, BP, Blood sugar & insulin 4. Tolerance 5. Headache 6. Nervousness 7. Anxiety 8. Insomnia 9. Decrease K+ by increasing the action of the Na+/K+ pump 10. Shift K+ to intracellular
Mechanism of Action for Cathocholamine Stimulates both Alpha and Beta receptors
What is the Frequency of cathocholamine: Onset 1-3 min, Peak 15-20 min, Short duration 1 hr
Name four drugs that are used for cathocholamine (generic and trade names) Epinephrine (adrenalin) Racemic Epinephrine (Vaponephrine, Micronephrine) Isoproterenol (Isuprel) Isoetharine (Bronkosol)
What is the mechanism of action for racemic epinephrine (Vaponephrine, micronephrine) Stimulates Alpha receptor
Indications for Vaponephrine? Racemic Epinephrine (Vaponephrine, Micronephrine) Indications: Vasoconstriction- helps reduce swelling after extubation & relieve stridor
What is the dosage for Racemic epinphrine SVN: .25-.5
How is racemic epinephrine given SVN
Name two SABA for the class Resorcinols? Metaproternol (Alupent, Metaprel) Terbutaline (Breathaire
What is the frequency and dosage for metaproternol Dosage: SVN: .2-.3 ml QID MDI: 2-3 Puffs QID Frequency: Onset 5 min, Peak 30-60 min, Duration 4-6 hr –not broken down by COMT
What is the mechanism of action for resorcinols dilation of smooth muscle, bronchodilation
What are the four drugs in the class Saligenins? (Generic and trade name) Albuterol-ventolin, proventil) Levalbuterol (xopenex) Salemeterol (Serevent) Formoterol (Foradil)
Which two Saligenis are LABA? Salmeterol-serevent Formoterol- foradil
Which two of the Saligenis are SABA? Albuterol-ventolin, proventil) Levalbuterol (xopenex)
What are the indications for Parasympatholytics: LABA? Indications: 1. Maintenance treatment of COPD when a second bronchodilator is needed 2. Severe asthma not responding well to a beta agonist
What are the contraindications for Parasympatholytics: LABA? • Drug Hypersensitivity • Caution for: • Glaucoma • Prostatic Hypertrophy • Bladder neck obstruction • Not for use in acute attack (PDR 2003) • Contains soy derivative which may trigger peanut allergies • Pregnancy B
What are some side effects for Parasympatholytics: LABA? • Blurred vision • Dry mouth • Tachycardia • Headache • Bronchitis • Dyspnea • Coughing • Upper respiratory infection • Nausea
What is the mechanism of action for Parasympatholytics: LABA?  Block bronchoconstriction being help by the parasympathetic system/ Muscarinic Receptors on smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
What are the three common drugs used in the class (generic and trade names) Drugs: Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent) Tiotropium Bromide (Spiriva) Atropine-not used anymore
What is the dosage/frequency for Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent)> Dosage: SVN: .5 QID o MDI: 2 Puff QID Frequency: 15-30 Min, Peak 1-2 Hr, Duration 4-5 hr
What is the dosage/frequency for Tiotropium Bromide (Spiriva)? Dosage : DPI 1 capsule DQ Frequency: Onset 30 minutes, Peak 3 hrs, Duration 24 hr
What are some side effects for bronchodilation? 1. Hypersensitivity to the drug 2. Tremors 3. Increase HR, BP, Blood sugar & insulin 4. Tolerance 5. Headache 6. Nervousness 7. Anxiety 8. Insomnia 9. Decrease K+ by increasing the action of the Na+/K+ pump 10. Shift K+ to intracellular
What are the Parasympatholytic Combination Drugs? Duoneb: Albuterol/Ipratropium Combivent: Albuterol/Ipratropium
Indications for inhaled Corticosteroids: Inhaled: Maintenance therapy for chronic inflammation in mild-moderate persistent asthma and COPD; not a rescue drug Nasal Rhinitis
Indications for Systemic: used for exacerbation of COPD or home maintenance if needed
Mechanism of Action of Corticosteroids: Regulates anti-inflammatory responses after binding to the cell’s DNA Enhances the body’s inflammatory inhibitors Inhibits migration of inflammatory cells (eosinophil and lymphocytes) Inhibits mast cells Constricts microvasculature at inflammatory sit
Side Effects Systemic steroids Immunosuppression, Cushing Syndrome (Moon Face), Increased Blood sugar,Adrenal Suppression , Osteoporosis, Fluid Retention, HTN
Side effects for Local/Topical steroids Candida Infection (thrush), Dysphonia (Hoariness),Bronchoconstriction
Name the Corticosteroids used for inhaled or topical purposes? Drugs: Local/Topical: Anti-inflammatory •Beclomethasone HFA (QVAR, Beclovent, Vanceril) • Flunisolide (Aerobid) • Triamcinolone (Azamcort) • Fluticasone (Flovent) • Budesonide (pulmicort)
What is the dosage/Frequency of Albuterol (Proventil & Ventolin) SVN: .63-1.25 mg TID MDI: 2 Puffs QID
What is the dosage/frequency of levalbuterol (Xopenex) SVN:.63-1.25 mg TID MDI: 2 Puffs QID
What is the dosage/frequency of Salmeterol (serevent) MDI- 2 Puffs BID DPI- 1 inhaled BID
What is the dosage/frequency of Formoterol (Foradil) DPI (aerolizer) 1 inhaled BID
What is the dosage/frequency of Budensonide (Pulmicort) DPI 1-2 inhaled BID SVN: 1 cap .25-.5 BID
What is the dosage/frequency of Mometasone (nasonex, elecon, asmanex) 220 mcg once daily increased dose after 2 weeks. Maximum dose 440 mcg daily
What is the dosage/frequency of Fluticasone (Flovent) MDI 44-110-220 mcg 2 puffs BID DPI Diskus 50-100-250 mcg
What is the dosage/frequency of Belcomethasone (QVAR) MDI- 40&80 mcg 1-2 Puffs BID
What is the dosage/frequency of Acetlycysteine (Acetadote) Mucolytic: SVN: 3-5 ml 10-20% mucomyst
What is the dosage/frequency of Dornase Alpha (Pulmozyme) SVN: 2.5 mg/ampoule QD
What is the dosage/frequency of Cormolyn (NasalCrom, Gastrocrom, Crolom) SVN: 20mg 4x a day at intervals MDI: 2 Puffs QID at intervals
What are the indications NON-steroidal Antiasthma Agents? Prevention of mild persistent asthma Alternative to steroids especially in small children/infants Used to prevent allergic rhinitis (nasal spray) Prevention of EIB
What are some Contraindications of NON-steroidal Antiasthma Agents? Ineffective if already in bronchospasm
Mechanism of action for NON-steroidal Antiasthma Agents? Inhibits degranulation of mast cells in allergic and non-allergic stimuli Does not bronchodilate
Side Effects/hazards HHN for NON-steroidal Antiasthma Agents: Sneezing Stinging or burning Nasal Irritation Bad Taste
Common Side Effects of NON-steroidal Antiasthma Agents? Dizziness Cough Headache Nausea
What are the indications for Antileukotrienes Indications: Used prophylactically for control of asthma
What is the Mechanism of Action for Antileukotrienes: Normally leukotrienes act like histamines only stronger inhibits action of leukotrienes (SRS-A)
What are the Drugs in the class Antileukotrienes: Zarfilucast (Accolate) 12 yrs and up, Zileuton (Zyflo) Hard on liver, Monteleukast (Singulair) 2yrs and up,
What is the dosage/frequency for Zarfilucast (Accolate) 12 yrs and up Dosage: 10-20 mg tablet BIQ
What is the dosage/frequency for Zileuton (Zyflo) Hard on liver Dosage: 600 mg tablets QID or BID if extended release,
What is the dosage/frequency for Monteleukast (Singulair) 2yrs and up Dosage: 4-10 mg tablet QD
What are the indications for Xanthines: Indications:Management of mild persistent asthma and COPD, Sometimes used as a respiratory ventilatory stimulant in premises for apnea, Used only for maintenance
What are the Contraindications for the xanthines: Any condition that effects liver or kidney function affects Theophylline level
What is the Mechanism of action for Xanthines: CNS Stimulation and ventilatory drive Cardiac muscle stimulation Increase in respiratory muscle strength and endurance Diuresis Bronchial uterine, vascular smooth muscle relaxation, Peripheral and coronary vasodilation, Cerebral vasoconstriction
Side Effects of Xanthines: CNS, GI, Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Renal
What are the Drugs used in this class: Theophylline (theo-Dur,Slo-phyllin, etc…)Aminophylline
What is the dosage/frequency for Theophylline (theo-dur, slo-phyllin) Dosage: Serum Levels <5ug/ml- no effect 10-20 ug/ml-theraperatic level >20ug/ml- nausea >30 ug/ml- arrhythmias 40-45 ug/ml- seizures
What are some indications for Mucolytics: Indications:Degrades or breaks down mucus,To aid in the removal of thick secretions
What are some different Types of Mucolytics: Mucolytic:breaks down mucus.(Mucomyst, Pulmozyme)Mucokinetic-increases mucociliary escalator or cough efficiency(Bronchodilators improve cough flow,surfactants decrease mucus adhesiveness) Mucoregulatory:decreases mucus production Expectorant:increases
What are some Contraindications for mucolytics: Hypersensitivity to the drug Caution: Wheezing
What are some Drugs that are mucolytics: Acetylecystine (Mucomyst) Dornase Alpha (rhDNAse)Pulmozyme NaHCO3 Saline (hypertonic saline and isotonic saline) Expectorant
What is the mechanism of action for Acetylecystine (Mucomyst)- breaks disulfide bonds of the mucus amino acid that holds sputum together Decreases Viscosity
What is the Dosage/Frequency for Acetylecystine (Mucomyst: SVN: 3-5 ml 10-20% mucomyst, HHN: Onset 1 min, Peak 5-10 min,
Side Effects for Acetylecystine (Mucomyst: Bronchospasm (always give with or after a Beta 2 agonist) Hemoptysis Nausea Rhinorrhea
What are some Other Uses for Acetylecystine (Mucomyst: Acetaminophen OD Protection of kidneys from cardiac dyes (angiogram) Experimental for prevention of lung injury in ARDS or lung cancer
What is the mechanism of action for Dornase Alpha (rhDNAse)-Pulmozyme Breaks down mucus DNA strands
What is the dosage for Dosage/Frequency Dornase Alpha (rhDNAse)-Pulmozyme: SVN: 2.5 mg/ampoule QD
What are some Side Effects for Dornase Alpha (rhDNAse)-Pulmozyme: Voice alterations Pharyngitis Laryngitis
Miscellaneous uses for Dornase Alpha (rhDNAse)-Pulmozyme: Drug of choice for CF patients Not as irritations as Acetylcystein Dont Give alone in HHN Discard if cloudy or discolored
What is the mechanism of action NaHCO3 Increases pH of mucus Weakens accharide chains Very little evidence of effectiveness
what is the Dosage NAHCO3: 2-5ml of 2%
Side Effects for NAHCO3 Hypernatremia Bronchial Irritation
What are some indications/mechanism of action Saline (hypertonic saline and isotonic saline) Expectorant Used to induce sputum Hypertonic pulls water into the airway Isotonic: Induces cough and makes mucus move easier Can be nebulized or instilled into ETT
What is the Dosage for Saline: 3-10% solution
What are some indications for antiinfectives Indications:For gram negative infections: Joint & bone skin & soft tissue respiratory infection sepsis abdominal infection UTIs Poor GI absorptions-given parenteral 400 mg (1.6ml) HHN- dose per local practice
What are the drugs that fall within this class (antiinfectives) Tobramycin (TOBI) Aminoglycoside Pentamidine (NebuPent) Ribavirin (Virazole)
Indications for Tobramycin (TOBI) Aminoglycoside: Pseudonmonas aeruginosa in CF, Staph and E-coli infections
Dosage for Tobramycin (TOBI) Aminoglycoside: 300 mg/5ml, 28 course of 80mg or more
Indications for Pentamidine (NebuPent): PCP Prophylaxis,Antiprotozoal for treatment and prevention of opportunistic pneumonia, Given if history of P carinii and/or low CD4 count <200
Dosage for Pentamidine (NebuPent): 300 mg of powder in 6 ml of sterile water once every 4 wk
Misc facts about Pentamidine (NebuPent) Don’t mix with another drug in HHN Don’t administer if pregnant Give in a ventilator booth if possible Give once a month
Indications for Ribavirin (Virazole): RSV
Dosage for Ribavirin (Virazole): 6mg of power in 300 ml of sterile water x 12-18/day for 3-7 days Used by SPAG Neb Wear goggles and respirator
Side Effects of Ribavirin (Virazole): Bronchospasm Cardiac Arrhythmias Conjunctives
Created by: laney21882