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Positioning Chptr 17

Digestive System

2 Parts of the Digestive System: Accessory Glands & Alimentary Canal
Accessory Glands consist of: (SLGP) Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas
Purpose of the accessory glands? Secrete digestive enzymes into the alimentary canal
The alimentary canal is a ______________ tube that extends from the ________ to the _________. Musculomembranous Tube; Mouth to the Anus
The alimentary canal in order: (MPE SSLA) Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestines, Large Intestines, Anus
The long muscular tube that carries food and saliva from the laryngopharynx to the stomach: Esophagus
Give the four layers of the esophagus and the rest of the alimentary canal from the outside inward: Fibrous, Muscular, Submucosal, Mucosal
The esophagus lies anterior to the __________ and posterior to the __________ and __________. Vertebrae; Trachea & Heart
The top of the esophagus is at what level? C6 or upper margin of the thyroid cartilage
The inferior portion of the esophagus passes through the diaphragm at approximately _____ and curves sharply to the ______ and increases in diameter to join the stomach at the _____________ junction at the level of the __________ at approx. ______. T-10; Left; Esophagogastric Junction; Xiphoid tip; T-11
What is the expanded portion of the terminal esophagus called? Cardiac Antrum
The dilated, saclike portion of the digestive tract between the esophagus and the small intestine: Stomach
The four layers of the stomach from the outside inward: Fibrous layer, Muscular layer, Submucosal layer, Mucosal layer
Four parts of the stomach: 1)Cardia 2)Fundus 3)Body 4)Pyloric portion
This surrounds the esophageal opening of the stomach: Cardia
Uppermost portion of the stomach: Fundus
In the upright position what is the fundus typically filled with? Gas
This portion of the stomach begins at the level of the cardiac notch: Body
The longitudinal folds in the mucosal layer of the body of the stomach: Rugae
The body of the stomach ends at the _______ ______. Angular Notch
After the Angular notch is the ___________ portion of the stomach which consists of the ___________ __________ immediately to the right of the Angular Notch then the more narrow _________ _________ that communicates with the _____________ _______ . Pyloric; Pyloric Antrum; Pyloric Canal; Duodenal Bulb
List in order the pyloric sections of the stomach from the Angular notch to the duodenal bulb: Pyloric Antrum, Pyloric Canal, Pyloric Orifice, Pyloric Sphincter
The curvature on the right border of the stomach is the __________ curvature and begins at the ______________ ____________ and ends at the ____________. Lesser; Esophagogastric Junction; Pylorus
The left inferior border of the stomach is called the ___________ curvature and begins at the ___________ ________ and follows the ________ curvature of the ________ down to the ____________. Greater; Cardiac Notch; Convex; Body; Pylorus
The greater curvature of the stomach is _____ to _____ times larger than the lesser curvature. Four to Five
The entrance and exits to the stomach are controlled by __________ muscles. The ___________ __________ controls the cardiac orifice and the ___________ ___________ controls the pyloric orifice. Sphincter; Cardiac sphincter; Pyloric Sphincter
The body habitus whereby the stomach is almost horizontal and high: Hypersthenic
The body habitus whereby the stomach is vertical and maintains a low position: Asthenic
Food that has been mechanically and chemically altered in the stomach is transported to the duodenum as a material called __________. Chyme
Another name for the large intestine? Colon
The expanded portion of the terminal esophagus that lies in the abdomen is the ___________ ________. Cardiac Antrum
Approximately how long is the alimentary canal? 29-30 feet
The act of swallowing is called __________. Deglutition
What position helps the peristalsis motion of the stomach? RAO
What is the muscular opening between the stomach and duodenum? Pyloric Sphincter
Body habitus where the stomach is almost horizontal and high? Hypersthenic
Body habitus where the stomach is vertical and occupies a low position? Asthenic
What are the main functions of the stomach? Storage and breaking down of food
What structure serves as a passage for food and air? Pharynx
The small intestine is divided into ______ portions. The widest and shortest portion is the ____________ which is approximately ____ to _____ long. 3; Duodenum; 8 to 10 inches
The fingerlike projections in the mucosa of the small intestines are the _______ which assist in the process of _____________ and ____________. Villi; Digestion and absorption
Approximate measurement of the small intestine: 22 feet long x 1.5" (proximally) & 1" distally
What is the most distal portion of the small intestine? Ileum
What is the cartilage that prevents food from entering the larynx? Epiglottis
Where is the esophagus in relation to the larynx? Posterior
The esophagus joins the stomach at the ________________ __________ which is at the level of _______ or the __________ _________. Esophagogastric Junction; T-11; Xiphoid Tip
The esophagus joins the stomach at the esophagogastric junction through an opening called the _________ _________. Cardiac Orifice
What is the dilated portion of the distal esophagus? Cardiac Antrum
How many divisions of the stomach and what are they? 4; Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
The lateral border of the stomach is called the __________ _________. Greater Curvature
Barium in the prone position would be in what part of the stomach? Body and Pylorus
What part of the stomach is attached to the duodenum? Pyloric portion
How long does it usually take for barium to pass through the alimentary canal? 24 hours
What are some contrast mediums used? Barium, Gastrograffin, Air
What portion of the duodenum contains the duodenal bulb? Superior or first
Food that mixes with gastric secretions and is mechanically broken down and transported to the duodenum as _________. Chyme
The projection and body position that best demonstrates the esophagus? PA/RAO
What is the degree of obliquity for a PA oblique projection of the esophagus? 35-40 degrees
What is the recommended body position for radiographs of the esophagus? Recumbent
What are the advantages of a recumbent position for the esophagus? Complete filling of the esophagus and varices
What portion of the GI tract does absorption take place? Small Intestine
For a lateral projection of the esophagus, what plane is centered to the grid? Mid-Coronal
When the stomach is in a high transverse position, what body habitus is this? Hypersthenic
What is the patient preparation for a morning stomach exam? NPO after midnight
How many hours NPO for a stomach exam? 8 hours
Routine contrast methods for exams of the stomach? Single and Double Contrast
What is an advantage of using double contrast? Mucosal lining and lesions are better observed
For a PA projection of the stomach and duodenum, what plane is centered to the IR? Sagittal plane midway between the vertebral column and the mid coronal plane of the elevated side
What is used for negative contrast? Sodium Bicarbonate
What is true about barium sulfate? Must be well stirred
What clinical condition would be reason to use a water soluble contrast agent? Perforated Bowel
What is the degree of body rotation for a PA projection, RAO position of the stomach and duodenum? 40-70 degrees
What body habitus would require the greatest degree of rotation for a PA projection, RAO position of the stomach and duodenum? Hypersthenic
What position would best demonstrate the entire stomach and duodenal bulb and C-Loop in profile? RAO
What patient care concern would prevent using water-soluble contrast agent? Allergy to iodine
What position would you use a positioning sponge? AP Oblique
Where is the fluoro tube? Under the table
AP Oblique radiograph of the stomach requires how much rotation? 30-60 degrees
What body position will show the fundus filled with barium? LPO
What projection will demonstrate the anterior and posterior surfaces of the stomach? Lateral
Which of the following in NOT radiation protection? Intensity
Which protects techs the most during fluoro? Distance
What is an enlarged recess or out-pouching in the esophagus? Zenkers
What is a bezoar? A mass formed in the stomach by undigested food
What is gastritis? Inflammation of the intestinal lining
Esophagram is centered where? T5-T6
How much do you oblique the patient for an esophagram? 35-40 degrees
Created by: foster1317