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Science Ch 6 Vocab

Artificial insemination a reproductive technology that includes collecting sperm from a male and injecting it into a female.
Assisted reproductive Technologies technologies that are used to achieve fertilization and pregnancy.
Blastula A hollow ball of cells about 1.5 mm in diameter that forms after the second week of embryonic development.
crossing over an event in meiosis I in which sister chromatids exchange DNA
differentiation in humans the process in which cell layers will eventually form the organs and tissues of a baby.
ectoderm the outside layer of the gastrula.
embryo the stage of a multicellular organism that develops from a zygote.
embryonic development early development of a multicellular organisms body cells.
endoderm the inner layer of the gastrula.
external fertilization fertilization in which a sperm cell and an egg cell unite outside the bodies of the parents.
fertilization the process during which an egg cell is penetrated by a sperm cell and the haploid genetic information of both male and female gametes combines.
fetus the stage of a multicellular organism that develops from an embryo.
gametes specialized cells necessary for reproduction.
gastrula the stage of a developing embryo in which the cells of the blastula organize into three layers.
genetic diversity inherited genetic differences in a species that give many organisms a survival advantage.
haploid number each set of inherited chromosomes, half the diploid number.
homologous chromosomes a pair of matching chromosomes
in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology used to treat specific fertility problems by fertilizing an egg cell in a petri dish.
independent assortment an event in meiosis I in which homologous pairs of chromosomes separate and sort themselves into daughter cells.
internal fertilization fertilization in which sperm cells are deposited inside the female’s body where they meet egg cells.
karyotype a photomicrograph that shows the number of chromosomes a person has, as will as their size and shape, prepared by cutting and pasting chromosomes taken from body cells during mitosis.
mating the process by which gametes arrive in the same place at the same time.
meiosis the process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes as body cells.
mesoderm the middle layer of the gastrula.
morula a ball of cells of about 0.2 mm in diameter that forms after the first week of embryonic development.
ovules the female plant structures that contain the egg cells
pollen plant structures celled grains that carry the sperm cells in a protective case to the ovules.
pollen tube a structure that delvers sperm cells to egg cells in plants.
pollination the transfer of male gametes in pollen from the male reproductive part of a plant to the female reproductive part of a plant.
sexual reproduction reproduction that requires two parents and produces offspring that are genetically different from each other, from either parent, and from any other member of their species.
syndrome a particular disease or disorder with a specific group of symptoms that occur together.
zygote the new diploid cell formed by the process of fertilization, which receives half its chromosomes fro its female parent and half from its male parent.
Created by: jacob.harris