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perfusion2

NUR_213 cowen

QuestionAnswer
WHAT are the 3 AORTIC WALL LAYERS? Tunica Intima, Tunica Adventitia and Tunica Media.
WHERE does the ABDOMINAL AORTA BEGIN? The Diaphragm.
WHAT is the average DIAMETER of ABDOMINAL AORTA? 1-3 cm.
Is Coarctation Congenital? Yes. It is often associated with other congenital abnormalitites b/c they develop at the same time.
Describe Coarctation: Localized narrowing of the Descending Ao, near the origin of Ductus Arteriosus.
WHERE is COARCTATION usually LOCATED? Just distal to the origin of the Left Subclavian Artery.
NAME 2 congenital heart defects that are ASSOCIATED with COARCTATION. Bicuspid Ao Valve and MV Malformations.
DEFINITION of an ANEURYSM? Localized areas of abnormal dilation of a blood vessel,(usually an artery).
DEFINE SACCULAR ANEURYSM: It is a weakening of the vessel wall at one particular point.(Thoracic= very rare).
Name some conditions that weaken or CAUSE ACQUIRED ANEURYSMS: Atherosclerosis (which is the MOST COMMON), Syphilis, Trauma, Ao Stenosis, Ao Coarctation, PDA, Infection, and Ao Arterits.
WHAT can SACCULAR ANEURYSM RESULT in? A pouch-like expansion and a small neck. They look like a sac.
DEFINITION of a FUSIFORM ANEURYSM? Weakening of the ENTIRE circumference of the vessel. Dilation is normal. Stagnant flow can cause blood clots because the blood pools. (If a blood clot embolizes & it's above the renal artery it can cause big issues).
DEFINITION of an ACQUIRED ANEURYSM? It is not congenital. It is caused/acquired by weakness in the vessel. The client has a condition that has caused the weakening.
To be considered ANEURYSMAL the Ao must be ABOVE WHAT size? And ABOVE WHAT size before they'll operate? Above 3cm to be considered aneurysmal. And above 5cm before they'll operate.
WHAT are the 2 MOST COMMON Thoracic Ao Aneurysm SITES? Ao Arch and Descending Ao.
WHAT causes the Thoracic Ao Aneurysm? Plaque. It weakens the vessel wall. It causes degeneration of the media wall.
Atherosclerotic Process does WHAT 3 THINGS? It weakens the Ao Wall, Degenerates the Media Wall, and causes localized vessel dilatation.
Hypertension does WHAT 3 THINGS? Causes disease of the Ao, Undermines the strength of the Ao Wall, and eventual expansion to an aneurysm.
WHAT are SYMPTOMS of ANEURYSM RELATED to? Size and Location, not the aneurysm itself. Location, Location, Location!
Name some(Esophageal)Symptoms of Aneurysms: (Additionally, Aneurysms can be WHAT)? Wheezing, Cough, Dyspnea, Hemoptysis, Hoarseness, Dysphagia, and Spitting Up Blood. Asymptomatic.
WHEN do SYMPTOMS of aneurysm start SHOWING? When the aneurysm is large enough to impinge on adjacent structures.
Aneurysms can cause COMPRESSION (pushing against) of WHAT 3 PLACES? Left mainstream bronchus, laryngeal nerve (recurrent), and the esophagus.
Which diagnostic tests are used to detect Aneurysms? Chest X-Ray (Mediastinal Widening), CT with Contrast (reliable), MRI (Excellent and no contrast needed), and Angiography (Gold standard, Can be missed though if aneurysm is layered with thrombus).
WHAT SIZE does the ANEURYSM have to be for SURVIVAL to GO DOWN and WHY? In clients with 7cm diameter aneurysms. At this size they are prone to rupture & to produce symptoms of compression of surrounding structures.
Ao Dissection is a TYPE of WHAT? Aneurysm.
DESCRIPTION OF Ao Dissection? Catastrophic event initiated by a sudden tear in the intima.
HOW does Ao Dissection OCCUR? A column of blood enters the Ao Wall & destroys the media while stripping the Intima from the adventitia.
Created by: ccowen