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Asepsis & Infection

Nursing fundamentals

Asepsis The absence of illness-producing micro-organism
Medical asepsis The use of precise practices to reduce the number, growth, and spread of micro-organisms from an object, person, or area. Also known as clean technique.
Primary method of medical asepsis Hand-hygiene
Surgical asepsis The use of precise practices to eliminate all micro-organisms from an object or area. Also known as sterile technique.
Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) Infections acquired while the client is receiving care in a health care setting. Most common setting is ICU. Most effective prevention is hand hygiene. Most common site is urinary tract.
Iatrogenic infection Healthcare associated infection (hai) resulting from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure.
Signs of infection Fever, increased pulse and respiratory rate, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, enlarged lymph nodes
First stage of inflammatory response Redness, warmth, edema, pain or tenderness, loss of use
Second stage of inflammatory response Fluids containing Serous (clear) exudate, sanguineous (contains red blood cells) exudate, purulent (contains leukocytes and bacteria) exudate
Third stage of inflammatory response Damage tissue is replaced by scar tissue. Gradually new cells take on characteristics similar in structure and function to old cells.
Serous Clear
Sanguineous Contains red blood cells
Purulent Contains leukocytes and bacteria
Infection Cycle (Chain of Infection.) 1/Infectious agent. 2/Reservoir. 3/Portal of exit from reservoir. 4/Means of transmission. 5/Portals of entry. 6/Susceptible host.
Infection Control Hand Hygiene. Sterilization. Antiobiotics/Antimicrobials. Use of disposable supplies. Dry intact dressing. Cover nose when coughing/sneezing. Pesticides. Refrigeration. Use Masks. PPE. Disposal of needle/sharps. Immunizations. Staff screening.
Isolation Protective procedure that limits the spread of infections diseases amoung hospital population.
Standard Precautions Used regardless of diagnosis! All to blood ssecreations, excretions, non-intact skin, mucous membranesand all body fluids except sweat. Respiratory Hygiene. Safe injections. Masked spinal canal punctures.
Inflammatory Process 1/Vasular stage, vessel constriction & supply arterioles vasodialate. Histamine. 2/Cellular stage, keukocytes move in. Phagocytes clean up. Repair & regeneration.
Nursing Interventions to Break Chain of Infection (COI) Assessing data & risks. Diagnosing patient's condition. Outcome Identification & planning. Implementing.
Patients at risk for Infection Skin integrity,ph levels,white blood cells,age,sex,race,heredity,immunizations, fatigue,nutritional status,preexisting illness,stress,medications,medical devices and treatments,habits
Factors that reduce Healthcare Associated Infections/HAI 1/Constant surveillance by infection-control committees & nurse epidemiologists. 2/Written infection-prevention practices for everyone. 3/Promote best possible phyisical condition for patient. (Fluids, rest, oxygen, security, nutrient, etc.)
Hand Hygiene required situations Before and after direct patient contact. B/A using gloves. B/A invasive devices or catheters. Moving from contaminated body site to clean body site. After contact with objects & equipment in room.
List nursing diagnosis for a patient who is at risk for infection Diagnosing disease, altered immune response, medication effect, skin integrity, lack of immunizations, malnutrition, invasive devices, social isolation, impaired oral mucous memebrane, bad dental hygiene, trauma, anxiety, bad body temperature, dehydration
Strategies for implementing CDC guidelines for standard and transmission based precautions Using Standard Precautions & Transmission based precautions
Medical asepsis techniques Hand hygiene,keep soiled away from clothing,nothing on floor,respiratory into tissue,move away when cleaning,no raising dust,clean least soiled first,dispose properly,pour liquids into drain,sterilize if appropriate,keep groomed,follow guidelines.
Order to remove Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Inside room at door:Front tie,gloves,eyewear, gown,mask, don't touch outside of any! Hand hygiene.
Hand Hygiene technique Keep body/clothes away.Wet hands to the wrist downward.Lather firmly & circularly all areas and 1" above wrist at least 15 sec.Rinse downward.Pat dry upward.Turn off sink w/new towel.Lotion.
When is personal protective equipment (PPE) indicated? During procedures and care activities that are likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood or body fluids.
When is Intake and Output (I&O)usually recorded 06:00, 14:00, and 22:00
Measuring unit for intake and output (I&O) Ml (milliliter)
Normal urine output for an adult 30Ml per hour
Infection Disease state that results from the presence of pathogens in or on the body
Pathogens Disease-producing microorganisms
Bacteria The most significant and most commonly observed infection-causing agent in healthcare institutions.
Aerobic Requires oxygen
Anaerobic can live without oxygen
Virus Smallest of all microorganisms, visible only with an electron microscope.
Fungi plant-like organsims (molds and yeasts)
Endemic Disease that occurs with predictability in one specific region or population.
Reservoir Natural habitat of the organism
Stages of Infection 1/Incubation Period. 2/Prodromal Stage. 3/Full Stage of Illness. 4/Convalescent Period
Vectors Non-human carriers that transmit organisms. Like ticks, lice, and mosquitoes
Antigen Foreign material
Antibody Body's response to antigen
Nosocomial something originating or taking place in a hospital
Exogenous Causative organism is acquired from other people
Endogenous Causative organism comes from microbial life already inside
Iatrogenic Infection results from treatment or procedure
Disinfection Destroys all pathogenic organisms except spores. Bacteriocidal.
Sterilization Destroys all microorganisms
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Gloves, gowns, masks, protective eyegear
Alcohol-based handrub Apply product. Rub all surfaces. Rub until dry, at least 15 seconds.
3 Transmission-Based Precautions Airborne:private room w/monitored neg air pressure.Door closed.Mask/respirator required.Transport patient masked O.W.N./ Droplet:Private room.PPE.Transport masked patient O.W.N. Visitors 3 feet away./Contact: Private room.PPE.Limit movement.No sharing.
Incubation Period 1st stage of infection. Interval between the pathogen's invasion of the body and the appearance of symptoms of infection.
Prodromal Stage 2nd stage of infection. Most infectious. Early vague and nonspecific signs and symptoms.
Full Stage of Illness 3rd stage of infection. Specific signs and symptoms of illness.
Convalescent Period 4th stage of infection. Recovery period.
Normal leukocyte count (white blood cells) 5000-10000/mm3
Normal Neutrophil count 60-70%. Increased in infections that produce puss. Decreased levels risks acute bacterial infection. Levels increase in response to stress.
Normal lyphocyte count 20-40%. Increased in chronic bacterial and viral infections.
Normal monocyte count 2-8%. Increased in severe infections and function as a scavenger or phagocyte.
Normal eosinophil count 1-4%. May be increased in allergic reaction and parasitic infection.
Normal basophil count 0.5-1%. Usually unaffected by infections.
Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate Red blood cells settle more rapidly to the bottom of a tube of whole blood when an inflammation is present.
Virulence Strength or ability of organism to cause disease.
Communicability Ability of organism to spread from one person to another.
Transient bacteria Bacteria attached loosely on skin, removed with relative ease.
Resident bacteria Bacteria found in creases in skin, requires friction with brush to remove
Antiseptic Retards growth of organisms and is bacteriostatic.
W.H.O. World health organization
C.D.C. Centers for Disease Control
O.S.H.A. Occupational health and safety administration
N.I.O.S.H. National institute for occupational safety and health
Nosocomial deaths per year 90,000
Created by: mrscherish
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