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8Sci_Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics (Mayfield)

QuestionAnswer
What is continental drift? over time the continents have been moving on top of tectonic plates
What was Africa once connected to? South America
What was the sub-continent that split into North America, Europe & Asia called? Laurasia
What boundaries do plates collide? convergent
What occurs because of tiny metal particles in magma? magnetic reversals
What was the sub-continent that split into South America, Antartica, Africa, Australia and India called? Gondwana
At what boundary does plates divide and go in opposite directions? divergent boundaries
Where does sea-floor spreading occur? mid-ocean ridges
What is the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around? plate tectonics
What does GPS stand for? Global Positioning System
What was the super continent that means "All Earth" in Greek? Pangaea
What is the upward-arching folds when folding occurs? anticline
What is a normal fault? a fault caused by tension
Where is the Ring of Fire found? Pacific Ocean
What is uplift? the rising of regions of Earth's crust to higher elevations
What is rebound? a rock slowly springing back to its previous elevation
What is subsidence? the sinking of regions of Earth's crust to lower elevations
What type of mountain range is the Himalayas? a folded mountain range
What type of mountain range is the Andes Mountains? Volcanic mountain range
What is a strike-slip? a fault that moves horizontally or side by side
What is a syncline? a downward troughlike fold
What is a reverse fault? a fault caused by compression
What is a footwall? a wall you put your foot on
What is the theory that states the plates on the lithosphere move? the theory of plate tectonics
Where is the older crust of the mid-ocean ridge located? on the outside farthest away from the ridge
Which part of the fault block can you hang a rope from? a hanging wall
What is the opposite of anticline? syncline
What is the subduction zone? a special name of the convergent boundary when ocean crust goes under
What is material that rises, hardens & creates new crust at mid-ocean ridges? magma
What forms at continent-continent collisions? mountain ranges
What is an example of a strike-slip fault? San Andreas fault
At a continent-ocean convergent boundary, which crust will be subducted? oceanic because it is more dense than continental
What are three ways plates are moved? ridge push, slab pull & convection
What is ridge push? elevation at the peak of the mid-ocean ridge when gravity pushes plates down and out
What is slab pull? when more dense oceanic gets subducted and pulled under continental
What is convection? when the mesosphere heats the asthenosphere, warm rock rises, cools and sinks.
What does convection create? it creates the wheel system that the lithosphere/crust moves on
What are the 3 types of mountain ranges? folded, volcanic & fault block
What are the characteristics of a folded mountain range? continental-continental boundaries where the crust buckles and gets pushed upward
What are the characteristics of a volcanic mountain range? Oceanic-Continental subduction that causes oceanic to go down be cause it is more dense. It melts magma and comes back through cracks and can create volcanoes
What are the characteristics of a fault block mountain range? Mountains are sharp and jagged. Tensions caused faults to be under stress and one side rises causing mountains
What undergoes compaction from sedimentary rock? sediment
What are igneous rocks that form above the surface of the Earth called? extrusive
What type of rocks form deep in the Earth due to increased temperature and pressure? metamorphic
What is the most commonly used biological sedimentary rock? coal
What type of metamorphic rocks are created by heat from nearby magma? contact metamorphic rocks
What type of rocks are usually located near the surface? sedimentary
What is the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around? plate tectonics
What type of rocks form below the surface of the Earth? intrusive igneous rocks
What type of metamorphic rock is formed by built up pressure deep within the Earth? regional metamorphic rocks
Where is the older crust found along the mid-ocean ridge? on the outside of the ridge
What continent is India moving North into? Asia
What are two types of igneous rocks? intrusive and extrusive
What is involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks? erosion/weathering, deposition, transportation
What are three types of sedimentary rocks? clastic, chemical & organic
What type of tectonic plate moves away from each other? divergent or normal faults
What type of tectonic plate moves toward each other? convergent or reverse faults
What type of tectonic plate move side to side of each other? strike-slip
What type of stress is occurring at a normal plate boundary? tension
What characteristics would you find with sediment that traveled a long distance in fast flowing water? it would be round and smooth due to more exposure to water erosion
What characteristics would you find with sediment that traveled a short distance in fast flowing water? it would be more jagged due to less exposure to water erosion
What type of stress is occurring at a reverse plate boundary? compression
What type of stress is occurring at a strike-slip fault? shearing
How can sedimentary rock be used to help scientists determine past environments? Terrestrial, Freshwater & marine fossils within the layers
How is metamorphic rock created? heat close to magma
How is igneous rock created? by lava or magma
How is sedimentary rock created? compacted sediments
What are two types of metamorphic rocks? contact and regional
What are two types of igneous rocks? intrusive and extrusive
What are three types of sedimentary rocks? clastic, chemical and biological
What type of evidence is there to prove sea-floor spreading occurs? magnetic reversals and differences in crustal age
How often does magnetic reversals occur? it switches every 300,000 years
Created by: ndmsteach