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Med Terminol

Medical Terminology 1

diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome caused by insulin deficiency
diabet r -diabetes
ic s-pertaining to
hypotension low bp
hypo p- below
tens r- pressure
ive s- pertaining to, quality of
ion s- condition, action
hypotensive suffering from low bp (hypotension)
ketoacidosis excessive production of ketones, making the blood acidic
sis s- abnormal condition
ket/o r/cf - ketone
acid/o r/cf - acid
neuropathy any disorder affecting the nervous system
pathy s- disease
neur/o r/cf- nerve
pneumonia inflammation of lung parenchyma tissue
pneumon r- air, lung
ia s- condition
retinopathy any disease of the retina
pathy s- disease
retin/o r/cf- retina of eye
tachycardia rapid heart rate, above 100 bpm
tachy p- rapid
card r- heart
tachypnea rapid breathing
pnea r- breathe
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
pulmonology study of the lungs
pulmonologist specialist studies the lungs
ary s- pertaining to
pulmon r- lung
logy s-study of
pulmon/o r/cf - lung
logist s- one who studies, specialist
pneumon r- lung, air
itis s- inflammation
respiration process of breathing, exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
respir r - to breathe
ation s- process
atory s- pertaining to
respiratory pertaining to respiration (breathing)
gastric pertaining to the stomach
gastr r- stomach
epi p- above
hypo p- below
epigastric abdominal region above the stomach
hypogastric abdominal region below the stomach
lateral pertaining to one side of the body
later r- side
al s- pertaining to
bi p- two
uni p- one
bilateral pertaining to both sides of the body
unilateral pertaining to one side of the body
macrocyte large red blood cell
macro p- large
cyte r- cell
macrocytic pertaining to the macrocyte (large red blood cell)
mature fully developed
post mature infant born after 42 wks gestation
premature before expected time, eg infant born before 37 wks gestation
mature r- fully developed
pre p- before
post p- after
microcyte small red blood cell
micro p- small
natal pertaining to birth
nat r- birth, born
peri p- around
perinatal around the time of birth
postnatal after the time of birth
prenatal before the time of birth
pneumothorax air in the pleural cavity
thorax r- chest
pneumo r/cf - air, lung
AMI acute myocardial infarction - heart attack
CXR chest x-ray
ECG/EKG electrocardiogram
IV intravenous
cardiology med spec of disease of the heart
cardi/o r/cf - heart
axilla armpit
axill r- armpit
ary s- pertaining to
dementia loss of intellectual and metal functions -chronic, progressive, irreversible
de p- without
ment r- mind
ganglion fluid filled cyst, or collection of nerve cells outside the brain and spinal cord
ganglion (Greek) a swelling or knot
ileum 3rd portion of the small intestine (Latin) to twist or roll up
ilium large wing-shaped bone at the upper and posterior part of the pelvis (Latin) groin
mucus sticky secretion of cells in mucous membranes (Greek) slime
mucous pertaining to mucus or the mucosa
mucosa lining of a tubular structure that secretes
prostate organ surrounding the urethra at base of male urinary bladder; (Greek) one who stands before
prostrate prostration (noun) to lay flat or be overcome by physical weakness and exhaustion; (latin) to stretch out
reflex involuntary response to a stimulus; (latin) bend back
reflux backward flow; (latin)backward flow
septum septa (pl) thin wall separting 2 cavities or 2 tissue masses; (latin) a partition
cervical pertaining to the cevix, or to the neck region
cervic r- neck
cervix lower part of the uterus
hypertension high BP
tens r- pressure
hyper p- above, beyond, excess, excessive
infusion introduction of a substance other than blood by IV
transfusion transfer of blood or blood component from a donor to recipient
fusion r - to join; combining or blending of distinct bodies into one
in p - in
trans p - across, through
intravenous inside a vein
intra p- within, inside
ven r- vein
ous s- pertaining to
neurology med spec of disorders of nervous system
protocol detailed plan; as for a regimen of therapy; (latin) contents page of a book
ureter tube that connects kidney to urinary bladder, (Greek) urinary canal, passage of urine
ur/o urine
urethra canal leading from bladder to the outside
uterus organ in which an egg develops into fetus; (latin) womb
vertebra vertebrae (pl) one of bones of spinal column; (latin) bone in the spine
abdomen part of trunk between thorax and pelvis
abdomin r- abdomen
anatomy study of structures of the body
ana r- apart from
tomy s- process of separating
ical s - pertaining to
anterior front surface of the body;
anter r - before
ior s- pertaining to
caudal pert to nearer the tailbone; (same as inferior, opposite of cephalic)
caud r - tail
al s- pertaining to
cephalic pertaining to or nearer the head
cephal r - head
coronal vertical plane dividing body into anterior and posterior portions
coron r - crown
al s- pertaining to
distal situated away from the center of the body;farthest from the point of attachment, refers only to limbs
dist r - away from the center
dorsal pertaining to the back or situated behind
dors r - back
lateral situated at the side of a structure
later r- side
medial nearer to the middle of the body
medi r- middle
posterior pertaining to the back surface of the body, situated behind
poster r - back part
ior s- pertaining to
prone lying face down, flat on belly; (latin) bending forward
proximal situated nearest the center of the body;situated closest to the point of attachment to the body, refers to limbs
proxim r- nearest to the center
sagittal vertical plane through the body divides it into right and left planes
sagitt r- arrow
supine lyint face up, flat on spine
transverse horizontal plane div body into uper and lower portions (superior and inferior)
ventral pertaining to the belly or situated nearer the face of the belly
ventr r- belly
al s- pertaining to
abdomin/o r/cf - abdomen
pelv r - pelvis
cavity hollow space or body compartment
cav r - hollow space
ity s- state, condition
cranial pertaining to the cranium (skull)
crani r- skull
cranium skull
diaphragm muscular sheet separting the abdominal and thoracic cavities
diaphragm/a r - diaphragm
quadrant 1 of 4 regions of the surface of the abdomen; 1/4 of a circle,(latin) one quarter
spine the vertebral column, or a short bony projection
spin r - spine
thoracic pertaining to the chest (thorax)
thorac r - chest
thorax the part of the trunk between the abdomen and neck
umbilical pertaining to the umbilicus (belly button, or the center of the abdomen
umbilic r - navel (belly button)
umbilicus pit in the abdomen where the umbilical cord entered the fetus
cell smallest unit of the body capable of independent existence; (latin) storeroom
conception fertilization of egg by sperm to form a zygote
cytology study of the cell
cytologist spec in the structure, chemisty, and pathology of the cell
cyt/o r/cf - cell
fertilization union of male sperm and female egg
fetiliz r - to make fruitful
organ structure with specific functions in the body
organelle part of a cell having specialized function
organ r - organ; (latin) intrument, tool
elle s - small
ism s- condition,process
tissue collection of similar cells; (latin)- to weave
zygote cell resulting from union of sperm and egg; (Greek) yolk
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid- source of hereditary characteristics found in chromosomes
RNA ribonucleic acid - the information carrier from DNA in the nucleus to an organelle to produce protein molecules
ribo p- from ribose, a sugar
nucle r- nucleus
steroid large family of chemical substances found in many drugs, hormones, and body components
ster r- solid
oid s - resembling
anabolism buildup of complex substances in the cell from simpler ones as a part of metabolism
anabol r - build up
ism s- process, condition
catabolism breakdown of complex substances into simpler ones as a part of metabolism
chromosome body in the nucleus that contains DNA and genes
chrom/o r/cf - color
some s - body
cytoplasm clear, gelatinous substance that forms the substance of a cell, except for the nucleus
cyt/o r/cf - cell
electrolyte substance that, when dissolved in a suitable medium, forms electrically charged particles
electr/o r/cf - electricity
lyte s - soluble
hormone chemical formed in one tissue or organ and carried by the blood to stimulate or inhibit a function of another tissue or organ; (Greek) set in motion
hormon r- hormone
intracellular within the cell
cellul r - small cell
intra p- within
lipid general term for all types of fatty compounds; eg. cholesterol, triglycerides, fatty acids; (Greek) fat
membrane thin layer of tissue covering a structure or cavity; (latin) parchment
membran r - cover, skin
ous s- pertaining to
metabolism the constantly changing physical and chemical rocesses occurring in the cell that are the sum of anabolism and catabolism
metabol r - change
ism s - process, condition
mitochondria organelles that generate, store, and release energy for cell activities
mit/o r/cf -thread
chondr r - granule, cartilage
-ia s - conditionn
nucleolus small mass within the nucleus
nucle/o r/cf - nucleus
-lus s - small
nucleus functional center of a cell or structure; (latin) command center
nucle r - nucleus
-ar s- pertaining to
protein class of food substances based on amino acids
arthroscopy visual examination of interior of a joint
scopy s - to examine, to view
arthr/o r/cf - joint
connective tissue supporting tissue of the body
connect r - join together
cruciate shaped like a cross;
ACL anterior cruciate ligament - at front of knee,
ligament band of fibrous tissue connecting 2 structures; (latin) band
meniscus disc of cartilage between the bones of the joint (eg. at knee cap); (latin) cresent
muscle tissue consisting of contractile cells
patella patellae (pl)t thin, circular bone embedded in the patellar tendon in front of the knee joint; kneecap; (latin) small plate
patell r - patella
therapy systematic treatment of disease, dysfunction, or disorder
therap r- treatment
therapeut r- treatment
4 primary tissue groups connective, epithelial, muscle, nervous
connective tissue funct - bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat; found throughout body (eg. blood, bone cartilage, and fat
epithelial tissue funct: protect, secrete, absorb, excrete; location- covers body surface, covers and lines internal organs, composes glands
nervous tissue function: transmit impulses for coordination, sensory reception, motor actions; location- brain, spinal cord, nerves
histology study of structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs
hist/o r/cf - tissue
capsule fibrous tissue layer surrounding a joint or other structure; (latin) little box
capsul r - box
cartilage nonvascular, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints; (latin) gristle
collagen major protein of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone
coll/a r/cf - glue
gen s - produce, form
matrix substance that surrounds and protects cells, is maufactured by the cells, and holds them together; (latin) mater-mother
nutrient substance in food required for normal physiologic function
nutri r - nourish
ent s - end result
periosteum fibrous membrane covering a bone
oste r - bone
peri p- around
um s- tissue
synovial membrane membrane that lines the interior of freely moving joints
tendon fibrous band that connects muscle to bone
synovial fluid slippery lubricant stored in the joint cavity; makes joint movement almost friction free
cardiovascular pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
cardi/o heart
vascul blood vessell -r
digestion breakdown of food into elements suitable for cell metabolism
digest break down food -r
ive pertaining to - s
endocrine a gland that produces an internal or hormonal substance
endo within - p
crine to secrete -r
homeostasis maintaining the stability of a system or the body's internal environment
home/o the same - r
integument, integumentary system organ system that covers the body; skin is the main orgain w/i the system;
r- integument covering the body
lymph clear fluid collected from body tissues and transported by lymph vessells to the venous circulation; r- lymph,lymphatic system
atic pertaining to
nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors, funct: rapidly coordinates body functions and enables learning and memory
nerv nerve -r
respiration process of breathing; exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen
respir to breathe -r
atory pertaining to
skeleton the bony framework of the body
skelet skeleton -r
urinary system removes waste from blood, maintains water and electrolyte balance, stores and transports urine; ureters, urethra, urinary bladder, kidneys
urin urine -r
biopsy removing tissue from a living person for lab examination
bi life - r
opsy to view -s
carcinoma a malignant and invasive epithelial tumor
carcin cancer -r
oma tumor, mass -s
cryosurgery use of liquid nitrogen or argon gas in a probe to freeze and kill abnormal tissue
cryo icy cold -r
surg operate-r
ery process of -s
cutaneus pertaining to the skin
cutan/e skin
dermatology med specialty concerned w/disorders of the skin
dermat/o skin
etiology the study of the causes of a disease
eti/o cause
excrete to pass waste products of metabolism out of the body
crete separate - r
ex out of, awary from -p
ion action -s
flora the population of microorganisms covering the exterior and interior surfaces of healthy animals; (latin) flower
prognosis forecast of the probable future course and outcome of a disease
gnosis knowledge -r
pro projecting forward -p
squamous cell flat, scale-like epithelial cell;(latin) scaly
secrete to produce a chemical substance in a cell and release it from the cell
secret produce -r
synthesis the process of building a compound from different elements
thesis to organize, arrange -r
syn together -p
synthetic built up or put together from simpler compounds
vasoconstriction reduction in diameter of a blood vessel
vas/o blood vessel
constrict narrow -r
dilat widen, open up -r
vasodilation increase in diameter of a blood vessel
adipose containing fat
adip fat-r
ose full of -s
analgesic substance that reduces or relieves the response to pain w/o prod loss of consciousness
alges sensation of pain-r
an without -p
dandruff scales in hair from shedding of the epidermis
dermis connective tissue layer of the skin beneath the epidermis; middle of 3 layers of skin
derm skin -r
epidermis top layer of skin
follicle spherical mass of cells containing a cavit or a small cul-de-sac; such as hair follicles; (latin) small sac
hypodermis (subcutaneus) below the dermis, 3rd layer of skin, deepest layer
intradermal within the epidermis (top layer of skin)
intramuscular with the muscle
IM intramuscular
muscul muscle - r
keratin protein present in skin, hair, and nails
kerat hard protein -r
melanin black pigment found in skin, hair, and the retina
melan black pigment -r
in substance -s
sebaceous glands located in the dermis that open into hair follicles and secrete a waxy fluid called sebum
sebum waxy secretion of the sebaceous glands
sebac/e wax
subcutaneus below the skin; same as hypodermic; 3rd layer of skin, deepest
cutan/e skin-r
sub below -p
transdermal going across or through skin
trans across, through -p
ultraviolet light rays at a higher frequency than the violet end of the spectrum
ultra beyond -p
violet violet, bluish-purple -r
wheal hives, small, itchy swelling of the skin; However, wheals raised by an injection do not itch
allergen substance prod a hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction
gen produce-s
all strange, other -r
erg work, activity -r
atophy state of hypersensitivity to an allergen - allergic
dermatitis inflammation of the skin
dermat skin-r
eczema inflammatory skin disease, often with a serous discharge; (Greek) to boil or ferment
eczem/a eczema -r/cf
excoriate to scratch
cori skin-r
ex away from - p
ate pertaining to -s
pruritis itching
pruit itch
anti against -p
rash skin eruption
seborrhea excessive amount of sebum
seb/o sebum -r
rrhea flow-s
sebum waxy secretion of the sebaceous glands
stasis stagnation in the flow of any body fluid; (greek) stying in one place;
vesicle small sac containing liquid (eg. a blister)latin-blister
decubitus ulcer sore caused by lying down for long periods of time
cubitus lying down -r
ulcer sore -r
de from -p
herpes zoster shingles; painful eruption of vesicles that follows a nerve root on one side of the body; (greek) to creep or spread
macule small, flat spot or patch on the skin; (latin) spot
malignant tumor that invades surrounding tissues and metastasizes to distant organs
malign harmful, bad -r
ancy state of -s
ant forming, pertaining to -s
melanin black pigment found in skin, hair, and retina
melan black pigment -r
oma tumor, mass -s
metastasis spread of a disease from one part of the body to another
stasis stagnate, stay in one place -r
meta beyond, subsequent to -p
ize affect in a specific way -s
stat stationary-r
nevus nevi (pl) congenital lesion of the skin; (latin) mole, birthmark
papillomavirus causes warts and is associated with cancer
papill/o papilla, pimple -r
oma mass, tumor - s
virus (latin) poison
papule small, circumscribed elevation of the skin; (latin) pimple
verruca wart casued by a virus (latin) wart
CA cancer
TB tuberculosis
SQ subcutaneous
UV ultraviolet
staphylococcus aurus most common bacterium to invade the skin
candida yeastlike fungus
candidiasis infection with yeastlike fungus
candid candida -r
albicans white
candida albicans thrush; the most common form of candida; can prod recurrent infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes
carbuncle infection of many hair follicles in asmall area, often on the back of the neck; ingrown hair
cellulitis inflammation of subcutaneous connective tissue
cellul cell
fungus fungi (pl) general term used to describe yeasts and molds
impetigo infection of the skin prod thick, yellow crusts
infection invasion of the body by disease-prod microorganisms
infect internal invasion, infection -r
infectious capable of being transmitted; a disease caused by the action of a microorganism
infestation act of being invaded on the skin by a troublesome other species, such as a parasite
infest invade -r
louse lice (pl) parasitic insect
mucocutaneous junction of skin and mucous membrane; (eg. the lips)
muc/o mucous membrane
cutan/e skin
ous pertaining to
necrotizing fasciitis inflammation of fascia prod deat of the tissue
necr/o death
fasc/i fascia (skin)
tiz pertaining to
ing quality of -s
parasite an organism that attaches itself to, lives on or in, and derives its nutrition from another species
parasit parasite -r (greek) guest
pediculosis an infection with lice
pedicul louse -r
osis abnormal condition
scabies skin disease prod by mites; (latin) to scratch
tinea general term for a group of realted skin infections caused by different species of fungi; (latin) worm
toxin poinsonous substance formed by a cell or organism;
tox poison -r
ity state, condition -s
tinea pedis athlete's foot
tinea capitis infection of the scalp - ringworm
tinea corporis ringworm infections of the body's skin and hands
tinea cruris jock itch; infection of the groin
autoimmune disease in whihc the body makes antibodies directed against its own tissues; fights self
immune protected from
auto self-p
dermatomyositis inflammation of the skin and muscles
dermat/o skin
myos muscle
Kaposi sarcoma form of skin cancer seen in AIDS patients
psoriasis rash characterized by reddish, silver-scaled patches; (greek) itch
rosacea persistent erythematous (redness) of the central face
scleroderma thickening and hardening of the skin due to new collagen formation
scler/o hard
derma skin
symptom departure from normal health exper by patient
sign physical evidence of a disease process
systemic lupus inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the whole body
system the body as a whole -r
lupus (latin) wolf
osus condition -s
erythemat redness-r
acne inflammatory disease of sebaceous glands and hair follicles; (greek) point
androgen hormone that promotes masculine characteristics
andr/o male
gen to produce, create -s
comedo comedones (pl) too much sebum and too many keratin cells block the hair follicle causing it; a whitehead or blackhead
cyst greek - sac, bladder; abnormal fluid-filled sac such as gall bladder or urinary bladder, surrounded by a membrane
pustule small protuberance on the skin containing pus
scar fibrotic seam that forms when a wound heals; scab
alopecia hair loss, baldness
cuticle nonliving epidermis at base of fingernails
matrix formative portion of a hair, nail, or tooth
onychomycosis condition of fungus infection in a nail
onych/o nail
myc fungus
osis condition -s
paronychia infection alongside the nail
para alongside -p
inflammation complex of cell and chemical reactions occurring in response to an injury or chemical or biologic agent
flammat flame
ory having the funtion of
scald burn from contact with hot water or steam
shock sudden physical or mental collapse or circulatory collapse; (german) to clash
allograft skin graft from another person or cadaver
allo other-p
graft transplant
autograft graft removed from the patient's own skin
auto self -p
debridement removal of injured or necrotic (dead) tissue
bride rubbish -r
de take away-p
ment resulting state -s
eschar burnt, dead tissue lying on top of 3rd degree burns;
heterograft graft from another species (not human)
hetero different -p
homograft skin graft from another person or cadaver; (same as allograft)
homo same, alike -p
regenerate reconstitution, rebuilding of a lost part
gener produce
re again-p
ation process-p
ate composed of-s
xenograft graft from another species (same as heterograft)
xeno foreign -p
abdominoplasty tummy tuck; surgical removal of excess subcutaneous fat from abdominal wall
abdomin/o abdomen
plasty surgical repair -s
abrasion area of skin or mucous membrane that has been scraped off
blepharoplasty surgical repair of an eyelid
blephar/o eyelid
clot mass of fibrin and cells that is prod in a wound
dermabrasion removal of upper layers of skin by rotary brush
derm skin
abras scrape off
granulation new fibrous tissue formed during wound healing
granul small grain
ation process -s
incision cut or surgical wound
incis cut into
excis cut out
excision surgical removal of part or all of a structure
keloid raised, irregular, lumpy scar due to excess collagen fiber production during healing of a wound; (greek) stain
laceration tear or jagged wound of the skin caused by blunt trauma; not a cut
lacer to tear
lipectomy surgical removal of adipose tissue
ectomy surgical excision -s
lip lipid, fat
lip/o fat
suct suck
liposuction surg removal of adipose tissue using suction
mammoplasty surg proc to chang the size or shape of the breast
mamm/o breast
rhinoplasty surg proc to change the size or shape of the nose
rhin/o nose
plasty surgical repair -s
bradycardia slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm
brady slow
plasm to form -r; as suffix - something formed
muscle tissue func: movement; attached to bones; found in the walls of hollow tubes, organs, and the heart
syn together, union, association, - p
in -s substance, chemical compound
cartilage nonvascular, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints; latin - gristle
chir/o hand
pract r - efficient, practical
chiropractic dx, tx, and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal sys
detoxification removing poison from a tissue or substance
de p- from, out of, removal, out of
toxi r- poison
ligament band of fibrous tissue connectin 2 structures; latin - band, sheet
muscle a tissue consisting of cells that can contract
muscul/o muscle
skelet skeleton
orthopedic pert to correction and cure of deformities and diseases of musculoskeletal sys
orth/o straight -r
ped child -r
osteopathy med practice based on maintaining balance of the body
oste/o bone
pathy disease -s
path disease -r
tendon fibrous band that connects muscle to bone; latin - sinew
number of bones in body 206
amount of blood in body 6 liters
4 components of skeletal sys bones, cartilage, tendons, ligaments
classification of bones by shape: long, short - (wrist, ankle, patella) ,flat- (skull,ribs), irregular(vertebrae)
cortex outer portion of an organ, such as bone
cortic cortex -r
epiphysis expanded area at proximal and distal ends of a long bone to prov increased surface area for attachment of ligaments and tendons
physis r- growth
epi p - upon, above
haversian canals vascular canals in bone
marrow fatty, blood-forming tissue in the cavities of long bones
medulla central portion of a structure surrounded by cortex, contains marrow; latin - marrow
periosteum strong membrane surrounding a bone
oste bone-r
um structure -r
peri around -p
epiphyseal plate growth plate - at ends of long bones allow for growth
achondroplasia cond w/abnormal, early conversion of cartilage into bone, leading to dwarfism
chondr/o cartilage
a without --p
plasia formation -s
osteogenesis inherited cond when bone formation is incomplete, leading to fragile, easily broken bones
genesis formation -s
osteomalacia soft, flexible bones lacking in calcium - rickets
malacia abnormal softness -s
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone tissue; bone marrow infection; caused by bacteria infection like staph
myel bone marrow
oste/o bone
osteopenia decreased calcification of bone, low bone density
penia deficient -s
osteoporosis cond in which bones become more porous, brittle, and fragile, more likely to fracture; from loss of bone density
por/o opening
sis condition -s
rickets disease due to Vit D deficiency, prod soft, flexible bones; old english -to twist
sarcoma malignant tumor orinating in connective tissue
sarc flesh -r
oma tumor, mass -s
gen creation -r
osteogenic sarcoma malignant tumor originating in bone-producing cells
alignment having a structure in its corerct postion relative to others
lign line -r
a into -p
comminut break into pieces -r
comminuted fracture a fx in which bone is broken into pieces
malunion when 2 bony ends of fx fail to heal together correctly
mal bad,difficult -p
un one -r
non not -p
nonunion total failure of healing of a fx
osteoblast a bone-forming cell
blast immature cell
cyte cell
osteocyte a bone-maintaing cell
pathologic fracture fx occurring at a site already weakened by disease process, such as cancer
path/o disease
ure result of - s
fract to break -r
reduction restore a structure to its normal position
duct lead -r
re backward -p
traction pulling or dragging force, latin - to pull
external fixation alignment of fx by immobil bone by plaster casts, splints, traction or external fixators (pins, plates, halo)
external manipulation bone is pulled from distal end back into algnment through a proc called reduction, often under anesthesia
closed, simple fracture bone is broken, but skin is not broken
open (comminuted) fracture a fragment of the fractured bone breaks the skin, or a wound extends to the site of the fx
displaced fracture fractured bone parts are out of line
complete fracture a bone is broken into at least 2 fragments
incomplete freacture fx does not extend completely across the bone; can be hairline, as in a stress fx in the foot when no separation of the 2 fragments
transverse fx fx is at right angles to the long axis of the bone
impacted fx fx consists of 1 bone fragment driven into another, resulting in shortening of the limb
spiral fx fx spirals around the long axis of the bone
oblique fx fx runs diagonally across the long axis of the bone
linear fx fx runs parallel to the long axis of the bone
greenstick fx a partial fx; one side breaks, the other bends (tib/fib and radius/ulna)
compression fx fx occurs in a vetebra from trauma or pathology, leading to the vertebra being crushed
stress fx fatigue fx caused by repetitive, local stress on a bone, as occurs in marching or running
axial skeleton includes: vertebral column, skull, rib cage; protects brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs
vetebral column - how many bones 26
5 regions of vertebral column cervical -7, thoracic - 12, lumbar -5, sacral -1, coccyx -1
cervical neck region
cervic neck -r
coccyx tailbone, at lowest end of vert column
kyphosis normal posterior curve of spine that can be exaggerated in disease
kyph bent, humpback-r
lumbar region of the back and sides between the ribs and pelvis
sacrum part of vert column that forms part of the pelvis; latin - sacred
sacr sacrum -r;
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of vert column
scoli crooked -r
spine vertebral column; or short projection from a bone
spin spine
vertebra, vertebrae (pl) one of bones of spinal column
vertebr vertebra -r
whiplash sym casued by sudden, extesion/flexion of neck
whip to swing
lash end of whip
skull - number of bones 22 - 8 cranial, 14 facial
cranium upper part of skull that encloses and protects brain; greek -skull
crani skull
ethm sieve -r
oid resembling -s
ethmoid bone that forms the back of the nose and encloses numerous air cells
lacrimal bone forms part of medial wall of orbit (around eye),
lacrim tears -r
mandible lower jaw bone
mandibul mandible -r
maxilla upper jaw bone, containing rt and lt maxillary sinuses;
maxilla maxilla -r
occipital back of the skull
occipit back of the head -r
palatine bone that forms the hard palate and parts of the nose and orbits
palat palate-r
parietal 2 bones forming the side walls and roof of the cranium
pariet wall-r
sphenoid wedge-shaped bone at the base of the skull
sphen wedge -r
oid resemble -s
temporal bone that forms part of the base and sides of the skull
tempor time; temple-r
mandibul mandible -r
TMJ - temporomandibular joint joint between the temporal bone and the mandible (jaw bone joint below ear)
zygoma bone that forms the prominence of the cheek
zygomat cheekbone -r
AC acromioclavicular- lateral end of the scapula, extending over the shoulder joint; at end of clavicle
acromion joint between acromion and calvicle
acromi acromion -r
calvicul clavicle -r
articulate 2 separate bones have formed a joint
articul joint -r
ation process-s
articulation a joint
clavicle curved bone that forms part of the pectoral girdle
clavicul clavicle -r
dislocation completely out of joint
dis apart, away from -p
locat place -r
humerus single bone of upper arm; latin-shoulder
pectoral pertainint to the chest
pector chest -r
pectoral girdle incomplete bony ring tht attaches the upper limb to the axial skeleton; Old eng - girdle
scapula , scapulae (pl) shoulder blade
subluxation an incomplete dislocation when some contact between the joint surfaces remains
luxate dislocate -r
sub under, below, -p
capitulum small head or rounded extemity of a bone
capit/u small head -r
pronat bend down-r
prone lying face down on belly
pronation proc of lying face down on belly position, or turning a hand or foot with volar (palm or sole ) surface down
radius forearm bone on the thumb side; latin - spoke of a wheel
radi radius -r
supination proc of lying face upward, or of turning a hand or foot so that the palm or sole is facing up
supinat bend backward -r
supine lying face up, flat on back
trochlea smooth articular surf of bone on which another glides
trochle pulley -r
ulna medial and larger bone of forearm; latin - elbow, arm
uln ulna -r
hinge joint humrus and ulna - at elbow
gliding joint humerus and radius
2 articulations of elbow joint hinge joint - humerus and ulna- allows flexion and extension of elbow; gliding joint between humerus and radius of forearm - allows pronation and supination
arthritis inflammation of joint(s)
arthr joint -r
carpus 8 carpal bones of wrist
carp wrist bones -r
meta after, subsequent to - p
metacarpals 5 bones between the carpus and fingers
phalanges finger or toe bones; 14 phalanges of hand- each finger has 3 joints except thumb which has only 2
phalang/e phalanx, finger or toe
colles fx fx of distal radius at wrist
eponym proc or dx with name derived from name of person who discovered it
Heberden node bony lump on terminal phalanx of fingers in osteoartritis
metacarpophalangeal joint joints between metacarpal bones and phalanges
osteoarthritis chronic inflammatory disease of joints
arthr joint -r
osteo bone -r
phalanx, phalanges (pl) one of bones of fingers or toes
rheumatism pain in various parts of the musculoskeletal sys
rheumat a flow -
ism condition -s
rheumatoid arthritis systemic disease affecting many joints
acetabulum cup-shaped cavity of hip bone that receives the head of femur to form hip joint; femur goes into hip here
femur thigh bone
femor femur -r
illium large wing shaped bone at the upper and posterior part of pelvis
ischium, ischia (pl) lower and posterior part of hip bone
ischi ischium, hip bone -r
pelvis basin-shaped ring of bones, ligaments, and muscles at the base of the spoine
pelv pelvis -r
pubis another name for pubic bone
pub pubis -r
SI sacroiliac joint - joint between sacrum and ilium
sacr/o sacrum -r
ili illium -r
symphysis 2 bones joined by fibrocartilage; 2 pubic bones; greek - grow together
hip bones - 3 fused together illium, ischium, pubis
po by mouth
prn when necessary
arthrodesis fixation or stiffening of a joint by surgery
arthr/o joint -r
desis to fuse toghether
diastasis separation of normally joined parts; greek - separation
radi/o radiation, xrays -r
radiology study of medical imaging
arthroplasty surgery to repair, as far as possible, the function of a joint; total replacement of hip joint
plasty reshaping by surger -s
avascular to without a blood supply
vascul blood vessel -r
a without -p
labrum cartilage that forms a rim around the socket of the hip joint; latin - lip-shaped
necrosis pathologice death of cells or tissue; greek -death
necr/o death -r
prosthesis artificial part to remedy defect in body; greek - addition
synovial lubricating
4 ligaments hold knee together medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament, ACL- anterior cruciate ligament, PCL - posterior cruciate ligament
4 knee joint bones lower end of femur, flat end of tibia, patella, fibula
collateral situated at the side; often to bypass an obstruction
later side
co together -p
cruciate re knee - 2 internal ligaments of knee joint cross over each other to form an "x";latin -cross
fibula smaller of 2 bones of lower leg; latin - clasp or buckle
fibul fibula -r
meniscus, menisci (pl) disc of cartilage between bones of a joint, eg the knee joint; greek - crescent
patella, pattellae (pl) kneecap; thin, circular bone in front of knee joint, embedded in the patellar tendon; laint - small plate
patell patella -r
tibia larger bone of lower leg; latin - large shinbone
tibi tibia -r
arthrocentesis aspiration of fluid from a joint
arthro/o joint -r
centesis puncture -s
arthrography x-ray of a joint taken after injection of a contrast medium into the joint
graphy process of recording
arthroscopy visual exam of interior of a joint
scopy process of using an instrument to examine visually
arthroscope endoscope used to exam interior of joint
bursa closed sac containing synovial fluid
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
burs bursa -r
debridement removal of injured or necrotic tissue
bride rubbish -r
de removal, out of -p
hyperflexion flexion of a limb or part beyond normal limits
hyper excessive, excess, above, beyond -p
flex bend-r
meniscectomy excision (cutting out) of all or part of meniscus (disc of cartilage between the bones of a joint, as in knee joint
menisc crescent, meniscus -r
prepatellar in front of the patella
patell patella -r
pre before, in front of -p
rupture break or tear of any organ or body part; latin - break, fracture
tendinitis (also spelled tendonitis) inflammation of a tendon
tendin tendon -r
bunion a swelling at the base of the big toe
calcaneus bone of tarsus (foot) that forms the heel
calcan calcaneus -r
eal pertaining to
hallux valgus deviation of the big toe toward the medial side of the foot (turns out)
hallux big toe -r
valgus turn out -r
metatarsus 5 parallel bones of the foot between the tarsus and phalanges
tars ankle -r
meta after, subsequent to -p
podiatry dx and tx of disorders and injuries of foot
pod foot -r
iatry treatment
Pott fx fx of lower end of fibula, often w/fx of tibial malleolus; at ankle
tallus tarsal bone that articulates w/tibia to form the ankle joint; latin - heel bone
tarsus collection of 7 bones in foot that form ankle and instep; latin - ankle
tarsal pert to tarsus
tars ankle -r
VS vital signs
SOB shortness of breath
WNL within normal limits
MRSA Methicillin Resistant Stapholococus Aureus- extremely virulent staph infection, can be fatal; use contact isolation - gloves and gown
CDiff Clostridium Difficile - very contageous diahhrea; contact isolation - gown,gloves
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; use Fowlers position
UTI urinary tract infection
Braden Risk Assessment scale detailed skin assessment tool
virulence strength of pathogen
SX symptoms
dx diagnosis
VS vital signs
SOB shortness of breath
WNL within normal limits
MRSA Methicillin Resistant Stapholococus Aureus- extremely virulent staph infection, can be fatal; use contact isolation - gloves and gown
CDiff Clostridium Difficile - very contageous diahhrea; contact isolation - gown,gloves
HTN hypertension
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; use Fowlers position
UTI urinary tract infection
Braden Risk Assessment scale detailed skin assessment tool
virulence strength of pathogen
SX symptoms
dx diagnosis
CVA coronary vascular accident; stroke
DNRCC do not resuscitate, comfort care
TIA trans ischemic attack - mini stroke
HS hour of sleep; bedtime
FX fracture
C/O complains of
A+O alert and oriented; to : purpose, time, place, person, (A+Ox1, A+Ox2,...)
HTN hypertension
MI myocardial infarct - heart attack
CHF congestive heart failure
AC before meals
prn as needed
IDDM insulent dependent diabetes mellitus
BS blood sugar, breath sounds, bowel sounds
NIDDM non-insulent dependent diabetes mellitus
- c with
tx treatment
CVA coronary vascular accident; stroke
TIA trans ischemic attack - mini stroke
q every
- p after
h+P history and physical
NPO nothing by mouth
A+O alert and oriented; to : purpose, time, place, person, (A+Ox1, A+Ox2,...)
SRD safety reminder device; eg. soft restraint
MI myocardial infarct - heart attack
AC before meals
s/p status post
BS blood sugar, breath sounds, bowel sounds
- c with
- s without
- a before
- p after
NPO nothing by mouth
SRD safety reminder device; eg. soft restraint
GIB GI bleed; gastrointestinal bleed
nonblanchable erythema test for decubitus ulcer- touch reddened area and it does not turn white- if stays red - sign of stage 1 skin break down
atrophy wasting away or diminished volume of tissue, an organ, or a body part **
hypertrophy increase in size, but not in number, of an indiv tissue element **
hyper above, excess, excessive - p
trophy nourishment -r
a without -p
contract draw together or shorten
tract draw -r
con with, together - p
fascia sheet of fibrous connective tissue; latin - a band **
fiber strand or filament; latin -fiber
multidisciplinary involving health care providers from omore than one profess
disciplin instruction -r
multi many-p
muscle tissue consisting of cells that can contract
skelet skeleton -
tone tension present in resting muscles
voluntary muscle is under control of the will
volunt free will-r
functions of skeletal muscle movement, posture (tone), body heat, respiration, communication
striations alternating light and dark bands of protein filaments resp for muscle contraction; skeletal muscle - striated muscle
Duchenne muscular dystrophy cond w/symettrical weakness and wasting of pelvic, shoulder, and proximal limb muscles **
dys bad, difficult -p
fibromyalgia pain in muscle fibers **
fibr/o fiber-r
my muscle
algia pain-s
myoglobin protein of muscle that stores and transports O2
glob globe-r
in substance -s
rhabdomyolysis destruction of muscle to prod myoglobin
lysis destruction-s
rhabd/o rod shaped
sprain wrench or tear in ligament
strain overstretch or tear in muscle or tendon
tendon fibrous band that connects muscle to bone
tendin tendon-r
tendonitis, tendinitis inflammation of tendon
tenosynovitis inflamm of tendon and its surrounding synovial sheath
thymectomy surg remov of thymus gland
thym thymus gland -r
synov synovial membrane-r
ten/o tendon-r
rotator cuff tear freq injury to shoulder girdle, caused by wear and tear from overuse
insertion re muscle - attachment of muscle to a more movable part of skeleton, as distinct from the origin
insert put together -r
ion action, condition -s
origin fixed source of a muscle at its attachment to bone
pectoral pert to chest **
pector chest -r
pectoral girdle incomplete bony ring that attaches the upper limb to the axial skeleton **
rotator cuff part of capsule of the shoulder joint **
rotat rotate-r
or one who does-s
cuff old English-band-r
biceps brachii muscle of arm that has 2 heads or points of origin on scapula **
brachi/i of the arm -r
ceps head -r
bi two -p
brachialis muscle that lies underneath biceps and is stronges flexor of forearm
brachi arm-r
alis pert to -s
brachioradialis muscle that helps flex forearm **
brachi/o arm-r
radi radius -r
cyst abnormal fluid-filled sac
deltoid large, fan-shaped muscle conn scapula and clavicle to humerus
delt triangle-r
oid resembling-s
dorsum back of any part of body, including hand
dors back-r
ventr belly-r
ventral pert to belly or situated nearer to surface of body
ganglion fluid containing swelling attached to synovial sheath of a tendon
lassissimus dorsi widest (broadest) muscle in back, the "V" **
dorsi of the back -r
latiss wide -r
imus most-s
stenosis narrowing of a passage
thenar eminence fleshy mass at base of thumb
hypothenar eminence fleshy mass at base of little finger
thenar palm-r
eminence latin-stand out
triceps brachii muscle of arm that has 3 heads or points of origin **
ceps head-r
brachi/i of the arm -r
ganglion cyst fluid filled cyst on back of wrist, result from irritation or inflamm of synovial tendon sheaths
carpal tunnel syndrome CNS) from inflamm and swelling of overused tendon sheaths; repetitive movements can cause it
abduction action of moving Away from midline, **
adduction action of moving toward the midline **
duct lead-r
ab away from -p
ad toward-p
calcaneal tendon formed from gastronemius and soleus muscles inserted into calcaneus
gastrocnemius major muscle in back of lower leg (calf)
gastrocnem calf of leg-r
gluteus 1 of 3 muscles in buttocks
glut buttocks-r
maximus gluteus maximus muscle is larges muscle in body, covering large part of each buttock **
medius gluteus medius muscle is partly covered by gluteus maximus
minimus gluteus minimus is smallest of gluteal muscles and lies under the gluteus medius
popliteal fossa hollow at back of knee
poplit/e ham, back of knee-r
quadriceps femoris an anterior thigh muscle w/4 heads (origins)
ceps head-r
orthotic orthopedic appliance to correct an abnormalty eg. brace **, eg. pins, plates
orthot correct-r
physical therapy use of remedial proc to overcome a phys defect** physiotherapy - another term for it
phys nature-r
iatr treatment-r
physic body-r
therapy systematic tx of disease, dysfunc, or disorder **
contracture muscle shortening due to spasm or fibrosis **
contract pull together -r
ure result of -s
prosthesis artifical part to remedy a defect in body **
resuscit revive from apparent death -r **
diaphoresis sweat, perspiration
diaphor sweat-r
etic pert to -s
ECG, EKG, electrocardiogram; record of elect signals of heart **
electr/o electricity-r
mediastinum area between lungs containing the heart, aorta, venae cavae, esophagus
media middle-p
stin partition -r
um structure -s
phleb/o vein-r
tom incise, cut -r
tomy surgical incision-s
aorta main trunk of systemic arterial sys
endocardium inside lining of the heart
endo inside -p
epicardium outer layer of the heart wall **
epi above, upon -p
infarct area of cell death from infarction
farct area of dead tissue-r
ischemia lack of blood supply to a tissue
isch to block, keep back -r
myocardium all the heart muscle
necrosis pathologic death of cells or tissue **
necr/o death - r
pericardium double layer of membranes surrounding the heart **
pulmonary pert to lungs and their blood supply **
pulmon lung-r
atrium chamber where blood enters heart on both right and left sides
atri entrance-r
bicuspid having 2 points; bicuspid heart valve has 2 flaps **
cusp point-r
id having a particular quality -s
inter atrial between atria of the heart
atri atrium -r
interventricular (IV) between ventricles of the heart
mitral shaped like mitre (bishop wears); mitral valve-
4 valves of heart on right -tricuspid and pulmonary, on left - mitral (bicuspid) and aortic
septum, septa (pl) thin wall dividing 2 cavities **
tricuspid having 3 parts; tricuspid heart valve has 3 flaps
ventricle chamber of heart - pumps blood; also means a cavity in the brain (prod cerebrospinal fluid) **
arrhythmia cond when heart rhythm is abnormal
atrioventricular (AV) pert to both the atrium and ventricle
atri entrance, atrium -r
diastole dilation of heart cavities, during which they fill w/blood
dysrhythmia abnormal heart rhythm
murmur abnormal heart sound heart w/stethoscope when a valve closes or opens abnormally
sinoatrial nodec (SA) center of modified cardiac muscle fibers in the wall of right atrium that acts as the pacemaker for heart rhythm
sin/o sinus-r
sinus rhythm normal (optimal) heart rhythm arising from SA node (sinoatrial)
systole contraction of the heart muscle
cardiomyopathy disease of heart muscle, the myocardium
cardioversion restoration of a normal heart rhythm by electric shock
version change-s
defibrilation restoration of uncontrolled twitching of cardiac muscle fibers to normal rhythm
fibrill small fiber-r
de from, out of-p
ator instrument-s
fibrillation uncontrolled quivering or twitching of the heart muscle
implantable a device that can be inserted into tissues
pacemaker device that regulates cardiac electrical
pace step-r
palpitation forcible, rapid beat of the heart felt by patient
palpit throb-r
A-fib atrial fibrilallation-
v-tach ventricular tachycardia- rapid heart beat occuring in ventricles
ventricular arrhythmias include 1.PVC's -premature ventricular contractions, 2. v-fib- ventricular fibrillation,
PVC's -premature ventricular contractions- result when extra impulses arise from a ventricle, 2. v-fib- ventricular fibrillation -occurs when ventricles lose control, quivering instead of pumping
v-fib ventricular fibrillation -occurs when ventricles lose control, quivering instead of pumping
heart block occurs when interference in cardiac electrical conduction prevents atria's contraction from coordinating w/ventricles' contractions
palpitations brief but unpleasant sensations of a rapid or irregular heartbeat; caused by exercise, anxiety, stimulants (caffeine)
AED automatic external defibrillator- send electric shock to heart in order to stop the heart temporarily so tha a normal contraction rhythm can resume
ICD implantable cardioverter/defibrillator- sense abnormal rhythms; gives heart small shock to return rhythm to normal
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
megaly enlargement-s
cor pulmonale right sided heart failure arising from chronic lung disease
cor heart-r
ale pert to -s
endocarditis inflammation of lining of heart **
exudate fluid that has passed out of tissue or capillary as result of inflammation or injury
sud sweat-r
myocarditis inflammation of heart muscle
pericarditis inflammation of pericardium, the covering of the heart
prolapse an organ slips out of its normal position; latin-falling
regurgitate to flow backward, eg. blood thru a heart valve
gurgit flood-r
stenosis narrowing of a canal or passage; eg. of a heart valve
sten/o narrow-r
tamponade patholic compression of an organ, such as the heart
tampon plug-r
ade a process-s
CO cardiac output
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
CAD coronary heart disease
PNB pulseless nonbreather
anoxia without oxygen
an without-par
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
arteri/o artery-r
scler/o hardness-r
asystole absense of contractions of the heart
systole/e contraction-r
atheroma plaque- fatty deposit in the lining of an artery
ather porridge, gruel -r
oma tumor, mass-s
hypovolemic decreased blood volume in the body
vol volume-r
occlude to close, plug, or completely obstruct
substernal under (behind) the sternum
AHD atrial septal defect
CHD congenital heart disease
PDA patent ductus arteriosus- an open, direct channel between aorta and pulmonary artery in newborn
VSD ventricular septal defect
coarctation constriction, stenosis, particularly of aorta
coarct press together, narrow-r
con together, with -p
idiopathic per to disease of unknown etiology
idi/o unknown-r
syndrome combin of signs and symptoms assoc w/ a parti disease proc
drome running-r
HDL high density lipoprotein - good cholesterol
LDL low density lipoprotein- bad cholesterol
angiogram radiograph obtained after injection of radiopaque contrast material into blood vess
angi/o blood vessel-r
angioplasty recanalization of blood vessel by surgery
percutaneous passage thru skin, as by needle puncture
cutan/e skin-r
per through-p
stent wire mesh tube used to keep arteries open
thrombus clot attached to a diseased blood vessel or heart lining **
thromb clot-r
ly break down-r
lysis dissolve-s **
triglyceride lipid containing 3 fatty acids
glycer sweet, glycerol-r
NKA no known allergies **
artery blood vessel with oxygenated blood; carries blood away from heart
hemodynamics science of blood flow thru circulatio
vein blood vessel carrying blood toward heart
varix, adj- varicose dilated, tortuous vein
varic varicosity, dilated, tortuous vein-r
OA osteoartritis
P pulse rate
arteriole small terminal artery leading into capillary network
ole small-s
capillary minute blood vessel between arterial and venous systems
capill hairlike structure-r
palpat touch, stroke-r
sphygm/o pulse-r
man/o pressure-r
steth/o chest
vena cava 1 of 2 largest veins in body
venule small vein leading from capillary network
aneurysm circumscribed dilation of an artery or cardiac chamber
collateral at the side, often to bypass an obstruction
col with, together-p
endarterectomy surg remov of plaque from artery
thromboembolism piece of detached blood clot (embolus) blocking a distant blood vessel
thromb/o clot-r
embol plug-r
thrombophlebitis inflamm of vein w/clot formation
Hct hematocrit- percentage of red blood cells in blood
RBC red blood cell
WBC white blood cell
anemia decreased no of red blood cells
an without-p
colloid liquid containing suspended particles
plasma fluid, noncellular part of blood
platelet (also called thrombocyte)small particle involved in clotting proc
plate flat-r
let little, small -s
serum fluid remaining after removal of blood cells and the formaton of clot
vita life-r
amin(e) nitrogen-containing substance -s
functions of blood 1. maintains body's homeostasis, 2. transports nutrients, vit, and minerals,3. transports waste prod, 4. transports hormones, 5 transports gases- O2, CO2, 6. protects from foreign subs- microorganisms+toxins, 7 forms clots
Hgb or Hb hemoglobin-red pigmented protein; main component of red blood cells
globin protein-r
agglutinate stick together to form clumps **
glutin glue,stick -r
aplastic anemia cond - bone marrow unable to prod suffic red cells, white cells, and platelets
plas formation-r
erythrocyte red blood cell
heme iron-based part of hemoglobin, carries oxygen
hemolysis destruction of red blood cells so that hemoglobin is liberated
lyt destroy-r
hypoxia below normal level of oxygen in tissues, gases, or blood
pallor paleness of skin
pernicious anemia (PA) chronic anemia due to lack of vit B12 **
nici lethal-r
function of RBC's transport: oxygen, CO2, and nitric oxide
agranulocyte white blood cell w/o granules in cytoplasm
basophil its granules attract a rosy-red color on staining
granulocyte a WBC that containes mult small granules in cytoplasm
leukemia disease when blood is taken over by WBCs and their precursers
leuk white-r
leukocytosis excessive number of WBCs
leukopenia deficient number of WBCs
lymphocyte small WBC w/large nucleus
monocyte large WBC w/ single nucleus
mononucleosis presence of large numbers of specific, diagnostic mononuclear leukocytes
neutrophil their granuales take up purple stain equally, whterh acid or alkaline
phil attraction-s
pancytopenia deficiency of ALL types of blood cells **
pan all-p
polymorphonuclear WBC w/multilobed nucleus
morph shape-r
DIFF differential white blood count
EBV Epstein-Barr virus- common virus, member of Herpes family
Ig immunoglobulin
PMNL polymorphonuclear leukocyte
leukemia cancer of blood forming tissues; prod high no of leukocytes
hemostasis control of bleeding
coagulant substance that causes clotting
embolus detached piece of thrombus, mass of bacteria,air, or foreign body that blocks a blood vessel
fibrin stringy protein fiber; part of blood clot
fibroblast cell that forms collagen fibers
blast immature cell-s
hematoma collection of blood that escaped from vessels into surrounding tissue
hemophilia inherited disease from defic of clotting factor
stasis control, stop-s
petechia pinpoint capillary hemorrhagic spot in skin
prothrombin protein formed by liver; converted to thrombin in blood clotting mechanism
thromb blood clot-r
purpura skin hemorrhages, initially red, then turn purple
thrombocyte, also called platelet small particle involved in clotting proc
Ab antibody- protein prod in response to an antigen
antigen substance capable of triggering an immune response
gen produce,create-r
ABO blood group system; type A blood - has only antigen A, type B- has only antigen B, type O-has neither antigen, type AB - has antigen A and B
autologous blood donation transfusion w/ own blood
Rh Rhesus
erythroblastosis fetalis hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN)
Ab antibody -protein prod in response to an antigen
spleen vascular lymph organ in LUQ of abdomen
thymus endocrine gland located in mediastinum
tonsil mass of lymph tiss on either side of throat @ back of tongue
efferent moving away from a center
afferent moving Toward a center
interstitial pert to spaces between cells in a tissue or organ
Lymphatic system - 3 functions absorb excess interstitial fluid and return it to bloodstream, remove foreign chemicals, cells, and debris from tissue, 3. absorb dietary lipids from small intestine
adenoid single mass of lymph tissue in midline at back of throat
aden gland-r
follicle spherical mass of cells containing a cavity, eg. hair follicle
immunoglobulin (Ig) specific protein evoked by an antigen; all antibodies are immunoglobulins
spleen functions consume bacteria, initiate immune response, consume old, defective erthyrocytes, serve as reservoir
phagocytose consume
hypersplenism cond - spleen removes blood components at excessive rate **
inguinal pert to groin **
lymphadenectomy surg excis of lymph nodes
lymphaden lymph node-r
lymphangi lymphatic vessels-r
Hodgkin lymphoma- chronic enlargement of lymph nodes spreading to other nodes in orderly way
neoplasm new growth, benign or malignant tumor
plasm to form-r
neo new-p
antecubital in front of the elbow **
autoimmune immune rxn directed against person's own tissue
mutation change in chemistry of a gene
toxin poisonous subst form by cell or organism
attenuate weaken the ability of organism to prod disease
attenu weaken-r
complement group of proteins in serum- finish off work of antibodies to destroy bacteria and other cells
humoral immunity defense mech from antibodies in blood
humor fluid-r
anaphylaxis immediate severe allergic response **
phylac protect-r
histamine compound liberated in tissues as result of injury or immune response
incubation process to dev an infection
incub lie on, hatch-r
retrovirus virus w/RNA core
retro backward-p
tag touch -r (as in contagious)
endemic per to disease always present in a community
dem the people-r
en in-p
pan all-p
pandemic per to disease attacking the population of very large area
nosocomial acquired w/i a hospital
nos/o disease-r
com take care of -r
CA- MRSA community aquired MRSA- methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
WNV West Nile virus
avian influenza bird flu
alveolus terminal part of respiratory tract where gas exchange occurs
alveol air sac -r
bronchus (pl - bronchi) windpipe; 1 of 2 subdiv. of trachea
cilium (cilia-pl) hairlike motile projection from surf of cell; latin -eyelash
spirat breathe -r
olfaction, olfact (r) sense of smell
oxy oxygen -r
pharynx (pharyng-r) tube from back of nose to larnyx (back of throat)
rale crackle hear thru stethoscope due to fluid in lungs, French - rattle
spir breathe -r
trachea air tube from larynx to bronchi
ABG arterial blood gas
URI upper respiratory infection
coryza also called rhinitis- acute inflamm of mucous membrane of nose
congest r- accumulation of fluid
epistaxis nosebleed
stax r-fall in drops
nas nose -r
palate roof of mouth, floor of nose
polyp any mass of tissue that projects outward
rhinitis acute inflammation of nasal mucosa
rhin nose -r
sinus cavity or hollow space in bone or other tissue
CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
apnea absence of spontaneous respiration
hypoxemia low oxygen level in arterial blood
hypoxia below normal levels of oxygen in tissues, gases, or blood
laryngopharynx regon of pharynx below the epiglottis that includes the larynx
nasopharynx reg of pharynx at back of nose and aboe soft palate
pharynx throat-r
or/o mouth
polysomnography test to monitor brain waves, muscle tension, eye movement and oxygen levels in blood as pt sleeps
tonsil mass of lymph tiss on either side of throat
somn (r) sleep-r
croup laryngotracheobronchitis- infection of upper airways in children; with barking cough
epiglottis leaf shaped plate of cartilage that shuts off the larynx during swallowing
glottis or glott mouth of windpipe-r
laryngotracheobronchitis inflamm of larynx, trachea, and bronchi
laryng larynx -r
papilla any small projection
stridor high pitched noise made when respir obstruction in larynx or trachea
pleurisy inflamm of pleura - membrane covering lungs and lining ribs in thoracic cavity
pleura membrane covering lungs and lining ribs in thoracic cavity
lobe subdivision of an organ or other part
bradypnea slow breathing, less than 10/min
dyspnea difficulty breathing
eupnea normal breathing, 12-20 / min
cyanosis blue discoloration of skin, lips, and nail beds due to low O2 levels in blood
cyan (r) dark blue -r
eu (r) normal -r
hemoptysis blood sputum
ptysis spit-r
hyperpnea deeper and more rapid breathing than normal
tachypnea rapid breathing, over 24/minute
hale (r) breathe -r
bronchiolitis inflamm of small bronchioles
bronchiectasis chronic dilation of bronchi following inflamm disease and obstruction
ectasis (r) dilation
bulla bubble like dilated structure
cystic fibrosis genetic disease w/excessive viscid mucus obstructing passages
emphysema dilation of respiratory bronchiles and alveoli
physema (r) blowing
hypercapnia abnormal increas of CO2 in arterial bloodstream
capn (r) carbon dioxide
rhonchus wheezing sound heard on auscultation of lungs; made by air passing thru constricted lumen
viscosity resistance of fluid to flow
viscos (r) viscous, sticky
CAO chronic airway obstruction
CF cystic fibrosis
adenocarcinoma cancer arising from glandualr epitheal cells; aden-gland; carcin -cancer
aden (r) gland
anthrax severe, malignant infect disease
anthrac (r) coal
anthracosis lung disease caused by inhalation of coal dust
aspiration removal by suction of fluid or gas from a body cavity
atelectasis collapse of part of lung
atel (r) incomplete
ectasis (r) dilatation
empyema pus in a body cavity, particularly in pleural cavity
hemothorax blood in pleural cavity
pneumoconiosis fibrotic lung disease caused by inhalation of different dusts
sarcoidosis granulomatoous lesion of lungs and other organs
silicosis fibrotic lung disease from inhaling silica particles
thoracentesis insertion of needle into pleural cavity to withdraw fluid or air
centesis (r) to puncture
tubercul (r) nodule, swelling, TB
AP anteroposterior
endotracheal pert to being inside the trachea
spirometer instrument used to meas respiratory volumes
spir (r) breathe
thoracotomy incision thru chest wall
tomography radiographic image of selected slice of tissue
tom/o (r) cut, slice, layer
PDT postural drainage therapy
mucolytic agent capable of dissolving or liquefying mucus
pneumonectomy surg removal of a lung
resection removal of specific part of organ or structure
sect (r) cut off
tracheotomy incision into trachea to create tracheostomy
endoscopy looking inside
septum septa (pl) a thin wall separting 2 cavities or tissue masses
thrombus a clot attached to a diseased blood vessel or heart lining
embolus detached piece of thrombus, a mass of bacteria, quantity of air, or foreign body that blocks a blood vessel
DVT deep vein thrombosis
lateral collateral ligament on side of knee, located outside the knee joint; most common ligament damaged in sports injuries
scoiosis crooked condition of spine
kyphosis humpbacked condition
autoimmune immune rxn directed against a person's own tissues
de without, out of, removal, from
ischemia lack of blood supply to a tissue
isch to block,
infarct area of dead tissue
nosocomial infection aquired while in the hospital
idiopathic disease of unknown etiology
sternum breastbone
scapula shoulder bone
clavicle collar bone
derm skin
SQ, SC subcutaneous
um structure
al, ic, ory pertaining to
lymphedema tissue swelling due to lyphatic obstruction; differs from regular edema
itis inflammation, infection
layrnyx voice box
pharnyx windpipe
sickle cell anemia genetic disorder among Afro Amer. RBCs form in sickle shape
pernicious anemia (PA) chronic anemia due to lack of Vit B12
anemia red blood cell condition where number of RBCs or amt of hemoglobin in q RBC is reduced
iron deficiency anemia anemia due to low iron in blood
hemolysis destruction of red blood cells so hemoblobin is released
lysis destruction
aplastic anemia bone marrow is unable to prod sufficient red cells, white cells, and platelets
nici lethal
agglutinate to stick together to form clumps
hepat liver
nephr kidney
pathy diseasese
ectomy surgical removal
tomy surgical incision
TIA transient ischemic attack
PVC premature ventricular contractions
ASD atrial septal defect
gastroenterologist specialist stomach and intestines
enterologist specialist for intestines
lith stone
rhin nose
epistaxis nose bleed
endocrine gland that prod an internal or hormonal substance and secretes it into bloodstream
exocrine gland that secretes substances outwardly thru excretory ducts
arthrodesis surgical fusion of joint
pnea breathe
apnea without oxygen; absence of spontaneous respiration
alimentary pert to digestive tract
aliment nourishment, food
alimentary canal digestive tract
an anus -r
bariatric tx of obesity
bari weight -r
atric treatment -s
esophogus tube linking pharynx and stomach
gastr r- stomach
enter intestine-r
gasteroenterology med spec of stomach and intestines *
intestin r- gut, intestine
intestine digest tube from stomach to anus
laparascopy exam of contents of abdomen using endoscope
lapar r-abdomen in general
nutrient substance in food req for normal physiol funct
nutrit r-nourishment
bolus single mass of a substance, Greek-lump
deglutition act of swallowing
deglutit r-to swallow
masticate to chew
mastic r-chew
peristalsis waves of alternate contraction and relaxation of intest wall to move food along diges tract *
stalsis r- constrict
dentine dense, ivory-like subst located under enamel in tooth
dent r-tooth
enzyme protein that induces changes in other substances
zyme r-enzyme, fermenting
pharynx r-throat
nas r- nose
nasopharynx reion of pharynx at back of nose and above soft pallate
or r-mouth
papilla any small projection
parotid parotid gland is salivary gland beside ear
par p- beside
ot r-ear
lingu r-tongue
mandibul r-mandible
uvula fleshy projection of the soft palate
aphthous canker sores
caries bacterial destruction of teeth; latin -dry rot
gingiva tiss surrounding teeth and covering jaw
gigiv r-gum
halit r-breath
odont r-tooth
pyorrhea purulent discharge
py r-pus
thrush infection with candida albicans; occuring anywhere in mouth
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
phagia r-swallowing
hernia rupture; protrusion of structure thru tiss that normally contains it
hiatus opening thru a structure
hiat r-opening
postprandial following a meal
prand r-breakfast
reflux backward flow
flux r-flow
re p-back
sphincter band of muscle that encircles an opening, when it contracts the opening squeezes closed; forms a 1 way valve
varic r- dilated, tortuous vein
chyme semifluid, partially digested food passed from stomach into duodenum
duoden r-twelve
gastrin homrone secreted in stomach stim secretion of HCl and increases gastric motility
HCl - hydrochloric acid acid of gastric juice
chlor r-green
intrinsic factor makes absorption of vit B12 happen
intrins r- on the inside
factir r- maker
pepsinogen converted by HCl in stomach to pepsin
pepsin enzyme prod by stomach that breaks down protein
pylorus exit area of stomach
phlor r- gate, pylorus
anorexia without appetite
orex r- appetite
dyspepsia upset stomach
peps r-digestion
gastritis inflamm of lining of stomach
ileum 3rd portion of small intestine
ile r-ileum
cec r-cecum
cecum blind pouch that is 1st part of large intestine
jejunum segement of small intestine between duodenum and ileum
jejun r-jejunum
peptic relating to stomach and duodenum
pept r- digest
perforat r- bore through
perforation hole thru wall of a structure
stricture narrowing of a tube
bile fluid secreted by liver into duodenum
bilirubin bile pigment formed in liver from hemoglobin
cirrhosis extensive fibrotic liver disease *
cirrh r-yellow
glycogen body's prin carb reserve, stored in liver and skeletal muscle
glyc r- sugar, glycogen
hepat r - liver
jaundice yellow staining of tissues w/bile pigments, including bilirubin
liver body's largest organ,in RUQ abdomen
gnosis r- knowledge
cholecystitis inflamm of gallbladder
chol r-bile
cyst r- bladder
choledocholithisis presence of gallstone in common bile duct
cholelithiasis cond of having gallstones
lith r-stone
endocrine gland that pro internal or hormonal subst and secretes it into bllod;
exocrine gland that secretes sust outwardly thru excretory ducts
endo p - within, inside
exo p- outward, outside
gall r-bitter
gallstone hard mass of cholseterol, calcium, and billirubin that can be formed in gb and bile duct
glucogen hormone that mobilizes glucose from body storage
gluc r-glucose, sugar
agon r- to fight
insulin pancreatic hormone that suppresses blood glucose levels and transports glucose into cells
insul r-island
pancreas only gland that is both an endocrine and exocrine gland; secretes digestive juices and the hormones insulin and glucagon
celiac disease caused by sensitivity to gluten
celi r-abdomen
ease r- normal function
dia p-complete
endoscope general term for a scope to examine colon; specific name for organ used to examine- eg. gastroscope - endoscope to examine stomach
portal vein carries blood from intestines to liver
villus, villi (pl) thin, hairlike projection, particularly of mucous membrane lining a cavity
amin r- nitrogen containing
chyle milky fluid that results from digestion and absorption of fats in small intestine
emuls r- suspend in liquid
lacteal llyph vessel carries chyle away from intestine
lipase enzyme that breaks down fat
lip r-fat
ase s- enzyme
constip r-press together
Crohn disease narrowing and thickening of terminal small bowel
enter r- intestine
dysentery disease w/diarrhea, bowel spasms, fever, and dehydration
entery r- condition of intestine
lact r- milk
sigmoid simoid colon is shaped like "s"
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
diverticulum pouchlike opening or sac from tubualr structure (eg intestine)
fissure deep furrow or cleft
hemorrhoid dilated rectal vein prod painful anal swelling
intussusception slipping of 1 part of bowel inside another to cause obstruction
intus p- within
suscept r- to take up
melena passage of black, tarry stools
occult blood blood that can't be seen in stool but is pos on feal occult blood test
Hemoccult test fecal occult blood test
periton r- stretch over
polyp mass of tissue that projects into lumen of bowel
proctitis inflamm of lining of rectum
proct r - rectum
proctologist surg spe in disease of anus and rectum
anastomosis surgicqally made union between 2 tubular structures
ostomy artificial opening into a tubular structure; end of bowel opens into skin at a stoma; illeostomy, colostomy
stomy s- new opening
stoma surgical artificial opening
colostomy artificial opening from colon to outside of body
ileostomy artificial opening from ileum to outside of body
gastric related to the stomach **
gastr r- stomach *
enter r-intestine *
gasteroenterology med specialty of stomach and intestines *
laparoscopy examination of contents of abdomen using an endoscope *
laparoscope instrument (endoscope) used for viewing abdominal contents *
laparotomy incision of intestinal wall
cholecystectomy surgical removal of gallbladder (cyst-gb)
laparoscopic appendectomy removal of appendix by endoscope * (look up)
laparoscopic cholesectomy surgical removal of gallbladder by laparoscope/endoscope
masticate to chew *
mastic r- chew
peristalsis waves of alternate contraction and relaxation of intestinal wall to move food along digestive tract: feeling you have to have BM *
stalsis r- constrict
peri p - around
nasopharynx region of pharynx (windpipe) at back of nose and above soft palate *
oral pert to mouth
or (os) r-mouth
palate roof of the mouth , anterior 2/3 is hard palate, posterior is soft palate *
tongue mobile muscle mass in the mouth; has the taste buds *
uvula fleshy projection of the soft palate
saliv r- saliva
canker sore aphthous ulcer, erosion of mucous membrane lining the mouth *
cold sore fever blister, recurrent ulcer of lips, lining of mouth and gums due to infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) *
caries bad cavity; bacterial destruction of teeth
gingivitis inflammation of gums*
gingiv r- gums
thrush infection w/Candida albicans; yeast infection/fungus in mouth *
pyorrhea purulent discharge (pus)
py r-pus
rrhea r-flow
asymptomatic w/o symptoms or abnormalities
symptomat r-symptom
dysphagia difficulty swallowing *
phagia r-swallowing
esophagitis inflammation of lining of esophagus *
esophag r- esophagus
hiatal pert to hiatus (eg. hiatal hernia)
hiatus opening through a structure
herni r- hernia
reflux backward flow
sphincter band of muscle that encircles an opening: when it contracts, the opening squeezes closed *
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease- reflux (regurgitation) of stomach's acid contents into esophagus
esophageal varices dilated, tortuous veins in esohagus- bleed - can cause death
varices (sing-varix) dilated, tortuous veins (varicose)
duodenal pert to duodenum - 1st part of small intestine; 9-12 in long
duoden r-twelve
chlor r-green
pylor r- pylorus, gate *
pylorus exit area of stomach
chyme semifluid, partially digested food passed from stomach into duodenum
gastrin hormone secreted in stomach tath stim secretion of HCl and increases gastric motility
HCl acid of gastric juice
intrinsic factor makes absorption of vit B12 happen
mucus sticky secretion o f cells in mucous membranes
gastroesophageal pert to stomach and esophagus
anorexia w/o appetite, an aversin to food
orex r- appetite
perforation hole thu wall of a structure
stricture narrowing of a tube *
perforat r- bore through
dyspepsia upset stomach, epigastric pain, nausea, gas
peps r- digestion
ileum 3rd portion of small intestine
jejenum segement of small intestine between duodenum and ileum
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
gastritis inflammation of stomach lining; prod symp of epigastric pain, feeling of fullness, nausea, occasional bleeding
peptic ulcer (pert to stomach and duodenum) in stomach and duodenum when mucosal lining breaks down
cecum blind pouch that is 1st part of large intestine
cec r- cecum
bile fluid secreted by liver into duodenum
cirrhosis extensive fibrotic liver disease
cirrh r- yellow
glyc r- glycogen, sugar
jaundice yellow staining of tissues w/bile pigments, including bilirubin
HAV, HBV, HCV hepatitus A, B, C virus
cholecystitis inflammation of gallbladder
chole r- bile
cyst r- bladder
cholelithiasis cond having gallstones (bile stones) *
cholelithotomy surgical removal of gallstones *
insulin pancreatic hormone suppresses blood glucose levels and transports glucose into cells
pancreas lobulated exocrine gland, head is tucked into curve of duodenum, prod insulin
insul r-island
pancreat r-pancreas
pancreatitis inflammation of pancreas, causes difficulty regulating insulin and sugar
CF cystic fibrosis -
glucagon homrone that mobilizes glucose from body storage
endoscope instrument used toexamine interior of tubular or hollow organ * (endoscope - look inside, a generic term for scope to examine )
endoscopy use of endoscope to perform examination
celi r- abdomen
dis p - apart
ease r- normal function
dia p- apart
flatulence excessive gas in stomach/intestines
flatul r- flatus,excessive gas
flatus gas expelled thru anus
malabsorption inadequated GI absorption of nutrients * (causes- ciliac and crons disease)
gluten insoluble protein in wheat, barley, oats
lipase enzyme that breaks down food *
amino acid basic building blocks of protein
lacteal lymph vessel carries chyle away from intestine
lact r-milk
emuls r- suspend in a liquid
gastroenteritis inflammatino of stomach and intestines; stomach flu *
crohn disease narrowing and thickening of terminal samll bowell
ileus intestinal obstruction *
anus terminal end of digestivve tract *
appendectomhy surg removal of appendix
appendic r- appendix
colon large intestine, expanding from cecum to rectum *
rectum terminal part of colon from sigmoid to anal canal (inside) *
diverticulum, pl- diverticula puchlike opening or sac from tubular structure (eg intestine) *
fissure deep furrow or cleft
intussusception slipping of 1 part of bowel inside another to cause obstruction; telecoping **
intus r- within
suscept r- to take up
polyp mass of tissue that projects into lume of bowel *
proctitis inflammation of linig of rectum *
proct r- rectum, anus *
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
anastomosis surgically made union between 2 tubular structures *
anastom r- provide a mouth
colostomy artificial opening from colon to outside of body
ileostomy artificial opening from ileum to outside of body
stoma artificial opening
ostomy artificail opening into a tubular structure
EEG electro encephalogram - record of electrical activity of brain *
encephal r- brain
epilepsy chronic bran disorder due to paroxysmal excessive neuronal discharges (seizures) *
epilept r- seizure *
seizure types gran mal, petit mal, febrile
synapse junction between 2 nerve cells, or a nerve fiber and its target cell, where electrical impulses are transmitted between cells
afferent moving Toward a center
dopamine neurotransmitter in some specific small areas of the brain
glia connective tissue that holds a structure together
myel r- spinal cord
myelin material of sheat around axon of a nerve
neurotransmitter chemical agent that relays messages from 1 nerve cell to next
sympathetic nervous system 1 of 2 division of autonomic nerv sys operating at unconscious level
parasympathetic nervous system 1 of 2 div of autonomic nerv sys, calms the body, slows down heartbeat, stimulates digestion
autonomic nervous system self gov visceral motor div of peripheral nerv sys
hypothalamus * endocrine gland in floor and wall of 3rd ventricle of Brain
cerebrum cerebral hemispheres
meninges 3 layered covering of the brain and spinal cord *
meningitis * inflammation of meninges, bacterial or viral; vaccination available !
pia mater delicate inner layer of meninges
Alzheihmer disease form of dementia; nvervecells inareas of brain assoc w/memory and cognition are replaced by abnormal protein clumps and tangles
dementia chronic, progressive, irreversible loss of mind's cognitive and intellectual functions
ment r- mind
de p- removal, without
stroke (CVA) acute clinical event caused by impaired cerebral circulation
grand mal seizure dramatic form of seizue with: loc, eyes roll up, jaw clenched, may stop breathing
petit mal seizures of children 5-10; stares vacantly for few seconds
febrile seizure triggered by fever in infants and toddlers 6 mos - 5 yrs, few dev epilepsy
tic * sudden, involuntary, repeated contraction of muscles
tonic state of muscular contraction *
Tourette syndrome * disorder of multiple motor and vocal tics
aneurism small, dilation of arter or cardiac chamber
encephalitis * inflammation of brain cells and tissues; brain swelling causes tissue damage
migraine severe ha,
mi p- half, derivied from hemi
graine r- head pain
syncope fainting; temporary loc and postural tone due to diminshed cerebral blood flow
alges r- sensation of pain
concussion * mild brain injury; brain bruise
concuss r- shake or jar
countercoup injujry to brain at point directly opposite point of contact
demyelination * proc of losing myelin sheat of nerve fiber
esthes r- sensation
VEP visual evoked potential
neuropathy * any disorder of nervous sys
paralyze make incapable of movement
lyze r- destroy
lysis r- destruction
paresis partial paralysis; weakness r-weakness
poliomyelitis inflamm of gray matter of spinal cord, leading to paralsis of limbs and muscles of Respiration
polio r- gray matter
myel r- spinal cord
drome r- running
ataxia * inability to coordinate muscle activity leading to jerky movements
tax r- coordination
paraplegia paralysis of Both legs
pleg r- paralysis
quadriplegia paralysis of all 4 limbs
spina bifida failure of one or more vertebral arches to close during fetal development
teratogen agent that produces fetal deformities (eg. thalidomide)
terat r- malformed fetus, monster
anxiety distress and dread caused by fear
bipolar disorder modd disorder with alternating periods of depression and mania
mania mood disorder w/hperactivity, irritability, and rapid speech
man r- frenzy
psychosis disorder causing mental disruption and loss of contact w/reality
paranoia presence of persecutory delusions
conjunctiva inner lining of eyelids
cornea central, transparent part of outer coat of eye covers iris and pupil
lacrimal pert to tears and tear apparatus
ptosis cond - upper eyelid is constantly drooped over eye, due to paresis ofmuscle that raises upper lid
conjunctivitis inflamm of conjunctiva- inner lining of eyelids
nasolacrimal passage from lacrimal sac to nose
lacrim r- tear
duct r- to lead
photophobia fear of light because it hurts eyes
opthamology dx and tx of diseases of eye
blepharities inflammation of eyelid
blephar r- eyelid *
blepharoptosis drooping of eyelid
paresis partial paralysis
contamination presence of infectious agent on any surface
accomodation act of adjusting somethng to make it fit the needs
commodat r- adjust
amblyopia failure or incomplete dev of pathways of visionto brain; lazy eye *
esotropia turning eye inward toward nose; cross-eyed
eso p- inward
exo p- outward
exotropia turning eye outward away from nose
ocular pert to eye
ocul r- eye
optometrist skilled in meas of vision, can't treat or pres meds
stabismus turning eye away from its normal position *
strab r- squint
ismus s- take action
iris colored portion of eye w/pupil in center
dilation stretching or enlarging an opening or structure
constric become narrow
strict r- narrow
lens transparent refractive struc behind iris
presbyopia difficulty in nearsighted vision occurring in middle and old age
presby r- old man
retina light sensitive innermost layer of eyeball
sclera white of eye
scler r- white of eye, hardness *
photoreceptor cell receives light and converts it into electrical impulses
uvea middle coat of eyeball, includes iris, ciliary body, choroid
visual acuity * sharpness and clearness of vision
astigmatism inability to focus light rays that enter the eye in different planes
stigmat r- focus
hyperopia able to see distant objects but unable to see close ** (farsighted)
myopia able to see close objects but unable to see distant; nearsighted
opia r- sight
myop r- to blink
hyper r- beyond
cataract complete or partial opacity of lens
glaucoma increased intraocular pressure
glauc r- lens opacity
angiography radiography of vessels after injection of contrast material
laser surgery use of concentrated, intense narrow beam of electromagnetic radiation for surg
opthalmoscope instrument for viewing retina
opthalm r- eye
retinoblastoma malignant neoplams of primitive retinal cells
retinopathy * degenerative disease of retina
peripheral vision ability to see objects as they come into the outer edges of visual field
acetaminophen analgesic and antipyetic (pain and fever)
acute sudden onset
chronic persistent, long-term disease
otitis media inflamm of middle ear
otologist med spec in disease of ear
otorhinolaryngologist EENT -ear, nose, throat med specialist
rhin r- nose
laryng larynx- throat
auricle shell- like external ear
cerumen ear was
otoscope instrument to examine ear
ot r- ear
pinna auricle - external ear
typan r- eardrum
adenoid lymph tissue in midline at back of throat*
aden r- gland
eustachian tube * tube connects middle ear to nasopharynx
ossicle small bone, particularly relat to 3 bones in middle ear
mast r- breast
stapes inner (medial) one of 3 ossicles of middle ear, shaped like a stirrup
coryza acute rhinitis; viral inflammof mucous membrane of nose
myringotomy incision in typanic membrane
myring r- tympanic membrane
tympanostomy surg created new opening in tympanic membrane to allow fluid to drain from middle ear (ear tubes)
tympan r- eardrum
cochlea combination of passages; describe inner ear
labyrinth inner ear
librium r- balance; equilibrium - equally balanced
otolith calcium particle in vestibule of inner ear (ear stone)
vestibule space at entrance to canal
endocrine gland prod internal or hormonal secretion
crine r- secrete
hormone chemical formed in 1 tissue or ogran and carried by blood to stim or inhiit a functin of another tissue or organ
pineal gland endocrine gland in floor an dwall of 3rd ventricle of brain; secretes feel-good hormone serotonin by day and converts it to melatonin at night
seratonin feel good hormone; neurotransmitter in CNS and PNS
melatonin hormone formed by pineal gland helps regulate sleep and wake cycles
hypothalamus endocrine gland in floor and wall of 3rd ventricle of brain; prod 8 hormones
endocrine system pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, 4 parathyroid glands, thymus, 2 adrenal glands, pancreas
protaglandin hormone present in many tissues, but first isolated from prostate gland
corticosteroid hormone prod by adrenal cortex
cortisone corticosteroid prod in small amounts by adrenal cortex
DI - diabetes insipius excretion of large amounts of dilute urine as result of inadequate antidiuretic hormone prod
hydrocortisone potent glucocorticoidw/ antiinflammatory properties
tropin s- stimulation
thymus endocrine gland in mediastinum
thyroid endocrine gland in neck
exophthalmos protrusion of eyeball
opthalmos r- eye
hyperparathyroidism excessive levels of parathyroid hormone;
hypoparathyroidism deficient levels of parathyroid hormone;
hyperpyrexia extremely high body temperature or fever
hyperthyroidism excessive prod of thryroid hormone; increases body metabolism, including protruding eyes, tachycardia, htn, diaphoresis, treamor, anxiety, diarrhea, weight loss
hypothyroidism deficient prod of thyroid hormone; decreases body's metabolism
adrenal gland endocrine gland o upper pole of each kikney
nephr r- kidney
idiopathic pert to disease of unknown origin
idi r-unknown
glucose final product of carbohydrate digestion; main sugar in blood
insulin hormone produced by islet cells of pancreas
islets of Langerhans areas of pancreatic cells that prod insulin and glycagon
diabetes mellitus metabolic syndrome caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency and/or ineffectiveness
IDDM insuline dependent diabetes mellitus; type 1 diabetes,
NIDDM non-insuline dependent diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes
hyperglycemia high blood glucose level, over 110
hypoglycemia low blood glucose level; under 70
paresthesia abnormal sensation - tingling, numbness, burning, prickling
esthes r- sensation
polydipsia excessive thirst
dips r- thirst
polyphagia excessive eating
polyuria excessive production of urine
retinopathy degenerative disease of retina
ketoacidosis excessive ketones in blood making it acid
metabolic acidosis decreased pH in blood and body tissues as result of upset metabolism (under 7.35)
p chemical formed in uncontrolled diabetes or in starvation
Created by: MBuzzelli