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Chapter 1#

Key Terms

Agonist Muscle or muscle group that is the prime mover for a joint action.
Anatomical position The universally accepted reference position used to describe regions and spatial relationships of the human body and to make reference to body positions.
Appendicular Skeleton All of the bones that are found in the limbs of the body
Atrioventricular (AV) valves Separate the atria from the ventricles. The right AV valve has three leaflets and is called the tricuspid valve. The left AV valve has two leaflets and is called the bicuspid (or mitral) valve.
Auscultation The act of listening to sounds of the body. A practitioner can use a stethoscope to assess blood pressure, heart rate, and heart and lung sounds by auscultation.
Axial skeleton The bones of the skeleton that form the central or supportive core, including the bones of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
Contractile Proteins Specialized proteins found within muscle cells that interact with one another to cause muscle force production. The major contractile proteins are actin and myosin.
Joints The articulations between bones, typically classified according to structure as being fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial.
What are the most common joint in the body? Synovial joints
Motor unit A single somatic motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers innervated by it.
Muscle fiber architecture The orientation of the muscle fibers to the longitudinal axis of the muscle.
Regulatory proteins Specialized proteins found within muscle cells that block the binding of the contractile proteins to one another and thus keep the muscle in a relaxed state.
What are the regulatory proteins? Troponin, and tropomyosin
Respiratory membrane The membrane formed by the walls of alveoli and capillaries as they come in contact with one another in the lungs. It is where diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs within the lungs.
Synergist Muscle or muscle group that assists the agonist in performing a joint action
Ventilation The act of breathing in (inspiration) and out (expiration) so that oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
Anterior The front of the body; ventral
Deep Below the surface and not relatively close to the surface
Distal Furthest point in distance from a given anatomic reference point
Inferior Away from the head; lower
Lateral Away from the midline of the body, to the side
Medial Toward the midline of the body
Posterior The back of the body; dorsal
Proximal Closest point in distance to a given anatomic reference point
Superficial located close to or on the body surface
Superior Toward the head; higher
Created by: Kayerenee