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AP Biology

What is an ionic bond? Bond created through the transfer of electrons.
What is a anion? Atom that gains electrons through an ionic bond and is negative.
What is a cation? Atom that loses electrons through an ionic bond and is positive.
What is a covalent bond? Bond created through sharing electrons.
What is the importance of hydrogen bonding? Hydrogen bonding is when a hydrogen atom is attracted to a adjacent oxygen molecule.
List the special characteristics of water. High specific heat, high heat of vaporization, universal solvent, strong cohesion tension, and ice density.
What is an acid on the pH scale? pH less than 7
What is a base on the pH scale? pH more than 7
What is a buffer? Substance that resists changes in pH by absorbing excess hydrogen ions or donating hydrogen ions.
What are the four organic compounds? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What elements do carbohydrates consist of? Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
What is dehydration synthesis? The joining of a compound by releasing water.
What is hydrolysis? The breakdown of a compound by adding water.
What does a lipid usually consist of? One glycerol and three fatty acids.
What do proteins consist of? Amino acids
What do nucleic acids consist of? Many repeating nucleotides.
Describe primary structures of proteins. Linear sequence of amino acids.
Describe secondary structures of proteins. Results from hydrogen bonding and takes a alpha helix shape.
Describe tertiary structures of proteins. Intricate three-dimensional shape of conformation of a protein.
Describe quaternary structures of proteins. Consisting of more than one polypeptide chain.
What is a prokaryotic cell? Cells with no nucleus or internal membranes.
What is a eukaryote cell? Cells with a nucleus or more complex cells.
What is inside the nucleus? Chromosomes that are wrapped in special proteins into a chromatin network.
What is the function of the nucleolus? Synthesize ribosomes.
What is the function of a ribosome? Site of protein synthesis.
Where are ribosomes located? In the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? Site of protein synthesis from the attached ribosomes.
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? Synthesis of steriod horomones, connects rough endoplasmic reticulum to golgi apparatus, and carries out detoxification processes
What is the function of the golgi apparatus? To package substances produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and secrete them to other cell parts.
What is the function of lysosomes? They are the principal site of intracellular digestion.
What is the function of peroxisomes? They contain a catalyst which converts hydrogen peroxide into water and also detoxify alcohol in liver cells.
What is the function of the mitochondria? The site of cellular respiration.
What is the function of vacuoles? They are membrane-bound structures for storage.
What is the function of chloroplasts? The site of photosynthesis ONLY IN PLANT CELLS.
What is the function of leucoplasts? Stores starch ONLY IN PLANT CELLS.
What is the function of chromoplasts? Stores carotenoid pigments ONLY IN PLANT CELLS.
What is passive transport? The movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from a high concentration until equilibrium is met.
What does hypertonic mean? Having greater concentration of solute than another solution.
What does hypotonic mean? Having lesser concentration of solute than another solution.
Created by: madi_ingy
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