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A & P muscular syste

Muscular system

QuestionAnswer
Sarcolemma muscle cell membrane
Sarcoplasm muscle cell cytoplasm
Myofilaments contracitle elements of each muscle fiber
Muscle fiber elongated cylindrical cell
Myofibrils groups of contrractile myofilaments that runn longitudinal within the muscle
Sarcomeres a small seciton or compartment within a myofibril> zline to zline - responsible for muscle contraction
Myofilaments structural components of myofibrils
Myosin thick myofilaments - occupy A Band of sarcomere - shaped like a golf club
Actin thin myofilaments - anchored to the Z Line
A (Anisotropic) Band Area of sarcomere = length of Myosin - dark bands
I (Isotropic) Band Area in successive sarcomeres between the ends of the myosin myofilaments (Actin only) light bands
Muscle Nerve Interaction of the Neuromuscular Junction = junction between axon terminal and muscle fiber
Muscle Nerve Interaction of Motor End Plate = location on the muscle fiber at the end of an axon terminal
Muscle Nerve Interaction of Motor Neuron = a nerve cell that innervates a muscle fiber - end of the nerve
Muscle Nerve interaction - Syrapse = functional connection
Hemoglobin in red blood cell - carries oxygen to muscle
Myoglobin stores oxygen in muscle tissue
Muscle Origin and Insertion - Origin immovable end of muscle - body segment w/ most mass - usually more proximally located - usually larger surface area of attachment
Muscle origin and Insertion - Insertion body segment w/ least mass - usually more distally located - usually smaller surface area of attachment
Muscle Origin and Insertion - Gaster (belly) fleshy portion of the muscle between the tendons of the origin insertion
Cardiac Muscle striated - involuntary (usually)
Smooth (Visceral) Muscle located in walls of hollow internal surfaces such as: blood vessels, stomach, urinary bladder or intestines - non striated in appearance - involuntary (usually)
A nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia
____________ transmit _________________ along nerve fibers to other neurons. Neurons Nerve impulses
Neurons typically have a __________, ________ and _____________. cell body, axons, dendrites
Organs of the nervous system can be divided in ___________________ and ________________. Central nervous system (CNS) and Peripheral nervous sytem (PNS)
Central Nervous System (CNS) is made up of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is made up of peripheral nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
What is at the ends of the peripheral nerves that gathers information and converts it into nerve impulses sensory receptors
What is the integrative function of the nervous system when sensory impulses are integrated in the brain as perceptions
What 2 systems can motor functions be divided into consciously controlled - somatic nervous system and the unconscious - autonomic system
What do Neuroglial cell do fill spaces, support neurons, provide structural frameworks, produce myolin and carry on phagacytosis
_________________ are the myelin - producing neuroglia of the peripheral nervous system Schwann cells
Branching ____________ carry impulses from other neurons toward the cell body dendrites
The ______ transmits the impulse away from the axon hillock of the the cell and may give off side branches Axon
Larger axons are enclosed by ___________ profived by Schwann cells and are myelinated fibers Myelin Sheaths
The PNS is made up of the what? Sematic nervous system, that oversees voluntary activities.
What controlls involuntary activities? Autonomic nercous system.
The PNS is made up of the what? Sematic nervous system, that oversees voluntary activities.
The PNS is made up of the what? Sematic nervous system, that oversees voluntary activities.
What controlls involuntary activities? Autonomic nercous system.
The PNS is made up of the what? Sematic nervous system, that oversees voluntary activities.
What are the gaps between neurons? Synapses
What are nerve impulses? they fire throughout the body, by a local current flowing.
What controlls involuntary activities? Autonomic nercous system.
What are neurotransmitters? Biochemicals that carry out the synaptic transmission process in the synaptic cleft.
What are the gaps between neurons? Synapses
Where do synapses exist? Between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another.
What controlls involuntary activities? Autonomic nercous system.
What are nerve impulses? they fire throughout the body, by a local current flowing.
When the neurotransmitters are stimulated to flood the gap and bond to ion channels on the post synaptic neuron what happens? This causes an action potential to be produced.
Where do synapses exist? Between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another.
What are the gaps between neurons? Synapses
What are neurotransmitters? Biochemicals that carry out the synaptic transmission process in the synaptic cleft.
When the neurotransmitters are stimulated to flood the gap and bond to ion channels on the post synaptic neuron what happens? This causes an action potential to be produced.
Where do synapses exist? Between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another.
What are neurotransmitters? Biochemicals that carry out the synaptic transmission process in the synaptic cleft.
What does the Motor efferent division do? Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs.
Where do visceral afferent fibers go? Transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain.
When the neurotransmitters are stimulated to flood the gap and bond to ion channels on the post synaptic neuron what happens? This causes an action potential to be produced.
Where do sensory (afferent) division go? To the brain.
What are neurotransmitters? Biochemicals that carry out the synaptic transmission process in the synaptic cleft.
What does the Motor efferent division do? Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs.
What do sensory afferent fibers do? Carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain.
What are nerve impulses? they fire throughout the body, by a local current flowing.
What are nerve impulses? they fire throughout the body, by a local current flowing.
Where do visceral afferent fibers go? Transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain.
Where do sensory (afferent) division go? To the brain.
What is the Meninges function? Is to protect the nervous system.
What do sensory afferent fibers do? Carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain.
Where do sensory (afferent) division go? To the brain.
What does the Motor efferent division do? Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs.
What do sensory afferent fibers do? Carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the brain.
Where do visceral afferent fibers go? Transmit impulses from visceral organs to the brain.
What does the Motor efferent division do? Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs.
What are the brain and spinal cord surrounded by? Meninges.
Where does Motor (efferent) division go? From the brain.
What is the cerebral cortex? Layer of gray matter towards the outside of the cranium. 75% of the cell bodies are here.
What does the Motor efferent division do? Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs.
What are the brain and spinal cord surrounded by? Meninges.
Where does the spinal cord go? Between the first and second lumbar.
What is the Meninges function? Is to protect the nervous system.
What is the thalamus? Sensory and motor impulses. Functions in memory.
The brain contains how many multipolar neurons? 100 billion.
Where does the spinal cord go? Between the first and second lumbar.
What can the brain be divided into? Cerebrum(largest portion) Diencepalon(sensory input) cerebellum(muscle activity) brainstem(regulates visceral activities)
The brain contains how many multipolar neurons? 100 billion.
What can the brain be divided into? Cerebrum(largest portion) Diencepalon(sensory input) cerebellum(muscle activity) brainstem(regulates visceral activities)
What can the brain be divided into? Cerebrum(largest portion) Diencepalon(sensory input) cerebellum(muscle activity) brainstem(regulates visceral activities)
The lobes of the brain? Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula.
What are the myelinated nerve fibers? Makes up white matter. Connects cell bodies of the cerebral cortex with the rest of the nervous system.
What is the cerebral cortex? Layer of gray matter towards the outside of the cranium. 75% of the cell bodies are here.
Functions of cerebrum? Interprets sensory impulses, functions in skilled skeletal muscle functions, and emotional processing.
What are the myelinated nerve fibers? Makes up white matter. Connects cell bodies of the cerebral cortex with the rest of the nervous system.
What is the thalamus? Sensory and motor impulses. Functions in memory.
Functions of cerebrum? Interprets sensory impulses, functions in skilled skeletal muscle functions, and emotional processing.
What is the hypothalamus? Regulates in hormonal output of the pituitary gland, regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and thirst.
What is the thalamus? Sensory and motor impulses. Functions in memory.
What does the brain stem consist of? Layer of gray matter towards the outside of the cranium. 75% of the cell bodies are here.
What is the hypothalamus? Regulates in hormonal output of the pituitary gland, regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and thirst.
What are the myelinated nerve fibers? Makes up white matter. Connects cell bodies of the cerebral cortex with the rest of the nervous system.
What does the brain stem consist of?
Functions of cerebrum? Interprets sensory impulses, functions in skilled skeletal muscle functions, and emotional processing.
What is the thalamus? Sensory and motor impulses. Functions in memory.
What is the hypothalamus? Regulates in hormonal output of the pituitary gland, regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and thirst.
What does the brain stem consist of? Mid-brain, pons, and medulla oblongata lies at the base of the cerebrum, and cts the brain to the spinal cord.
Medulla oblongata? Heart rate, and blood pressure.
Pons? Regulation of respiration.
Midbrain? Visual and auditory reflex centers and fear response.
Cerebellum? Processes and interprets impulses from the motor cortex making movements smooth and well timed.(coordination)
Order of muscle structure? Muscle->Fascicles->Muscle fibers(Sacrolemma)(Neuromuscular junction)->Myofibrils->Thick(myosin) and thin(actin) filaments.
Travel of neurons? Impulses travel from dendrites to cell body to axons.