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s.s. jud. br.

social studies judicial branch

Criminal created to protect society from wrong-doers
Crime serious offenses that are punishable with fines, community service, prison, and sometimes even death
Civil Law Laws created to deal with relationships among individuals
Plaintiff person bringing the civil suit – they feel a wrong has been done to them
Defendant person defending themselves – they want the civil trial to show that they did nothing wrong
tort CIVIL wrong doing against an individual
Criminal Law Divided into felonies and misdemeanors
Felony serious crime – arson, murder, rape, grand theft (over $300), etc – MINIMUM sentence is 1 year in prison
Capital Crimes Felonies punishable by death In GA include murder, kidnapping with some states do NOT have the death penalty bodily injury, aircraft hijacking, treason
Misdemeanor Less serious crimes – assault, battery, cruelty to animals, shoplifting, trespassing Usually punished by LESS than 1 year in jail
Trials Defendants – persons accused of a crime In case of a felony – trial by jury less serious crime – trial by judge
Jurisdiction When a court has authority to decide a case Original jurisdiction usually means a trial complete with witnesses, evidence, a judge, and a jury (citizens determine the facts of the case). Courts of limited jurisdictional of less serious offences
Appellate jurisdiction takes up where courts of original or limited jurisdiction leave off.
State courts misdemeanors are heard (most traffic violations) search and arrest warrants are issued
Probate courts deal with wills and estates of deceased persons issue licenses for marriage and to carry firearms appoint a legal guardian as needed, etc.
Magistrate courts issue warrants, hear minor criminal offenses, hear civil cases involving amounts of $15,000 or less do not hold jury trials
Juvenile courts were established to give attention to the treatment of juveniles: handle cases of deprived/neglected children see to delinquent/unruly child offenses supervise juvenile traffic violations
Municipal Court in a city or town handles traffic offenses, violations of LOCAL ordinances, some misdemeanors
Superior Court trial court - hears civil and criminal cases – only court to hear felony cases
Court of Appeals SECOND highest ranking court in GA – handles appeals
Supreme Court HIGHEST court in GA – reviews civil and criminal cases (more later)
step 1-pre arrest
step 2-pre booking
step 3-pre initial apperance
step 4-pre preliminary hearing
step 5-pre grand jury indictment
step 6-pre arraignment(plea)
step 7-pre plea bargaining
step 1-tri jury selection
step 2-tri opening statments
step 3-tri presentation of witnesses (evidence)
step 4-tri closing statements
step 5- tri jury deliberation/verdict
step 6- tri sentencing
The Appeal There are several actions that can take place after a trial
GA Supreme Court State’s highest court Has powers no other state court has Interpreting laws passed by the general Assembly Resolving challenges to elections Reviewing cases where the death penalty was sentenced
State Supreme Court JUSTICES ELECTED to 6 year terms by GA voters Has the MOST important role in the judicial branch because they interpret laws They review court cases that challenge the laws can declare a law unconstitutional
Created by: manu1