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Pop and Settlement

Lecture 2 - Vocabulary for MSU ISS 315

*Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)* annual growth rate for a country or region as a percentage increase; world RNI is 1.2% per year
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) total number of births divided by total population; world CBR is 21 per 1,000
Crude Death Rate (CDR) total number of deaths divided by the total population; world CDR 9 per 1,000
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) the average number of children born by a statistically average woman (world average is 2.7; for Europe it's 1.4; for Africa it's 5.1)
Life expectancy average length of life; world average is 67; for Africa it's 52; for Japan it's 82 § flooding is the big natural disaster that kills a lot of people
Push factors negative conditions that drive people from a location § Examples: cultural oppression, war, unemployment, natural disasters (famine, destruction like Hurricane Katrina)
Pull factors favorable conditions at a destination that attract people § Examples: economic opportunity (jobs), freedom, good climate
Urbanized population percentage of a country's people who live in cities ○ On average, 48% of world's population lives in cities ○ Developed areas more than 75% urbanized ○ Developing may be much lower than 50%
Squatter settlements illegal developments of makeshift housing
Over urbanization urban population grows faster than provision of infrastructure
*Cultural imperialism* active promotion of one's cultural system over another
Cultural nationalism the process of defending a cultural system against offensive cultural expression while at the same time actively promoting local or national values
*Hybridization or syncretism* sometimes occurs when forms of culture spread abroad then are melded with local cultural traditions
Dialect a distinctive form of a language associated with a specific region (e.g. American and British English)
*Lingua franca* a third language that is adopted by people from different cultural groups within a country who cannot speak each other's language (e.g., Swahili in Africa, English in India)
*Universalizing religion* attempts to appeal to all people regardless of location or culture (e.g. Christianity with 2 billion, Islam with 1.2 billion, Buddhism)
Ethnic religion identified closely with a specific ethnic group; does not actively seek converts (e.g. Judaism, Hinduism with 850 million in India)
Secularization exists when people consider themselves to be non-religious or outright atheistic (about 1 billion)
Geopolitics term that describes the close link between geography and political activity; Focuses on the interaction between power, territory, and space at all scales
*State* a political unit with territorial boundaries recognized by other countries and internally governed by an organizational structure (has boundaries) - United States
*Nation* a large group of people who share many cultural elements (e.g.: language, religion, cultural identity) and view themselves as a single political community (has no boundaries) ○ Kurds: through Turkey, Iran, Iraq
*Nation-state* (has boundaries and same cultural similarity) a relatively homogenous cultural group with its own fully independent political territory (e.g.: Japan, France); Kurds are a nation without a state
Centrifugal forces Cultural and political forces acting to weaken or divide an existing state (apart) ○ e.g.: linguistic minority status, ethnic separatism, territorial autonomy, disparities income and well-being
Centripetal forces Forces that promote political unity and reinforce the state structure (together) ○ e.g.: shared sense of history, need for military security, overarching economic structure
Colonialism formal establishment of rule over a foreign population
Decolonialization the process of a colony's gaining (or regaining) control over its territory and establishing a separate independent government (leave)
Gross National Income (GNI) the value of all final goods and services produced within a country plus net income from abroad ○ GNI per capita - obtained by dividing the GNI by a country's population
Morality rate under 5 years number of children who die per 1,000 persons; related to availability of food, basic healthcare
Adult literacy rates percentage of a society's males and females who can read; related to economic development, birthrates
Created by: brokenpencil



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