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Evolution

Biology Honors

QuestionAnswer
What is evolution? the process that changes over time by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
What is a scientific theory? Well supported, testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world.
Who was Charles Darwin? English naturalist who made a hypothesis about how life changes over time.
What is Darwin's hypothesis now called? Theory of Evolution
What ship did Darwin travel on? HMS Beagle
Where did Darwin travel to? Galapagos Islands
What are fossils? preserved remains of ancient organisms that provide evidence for how life has changed over time.
What did James Hutton propose? that the Earth is shaped by geological forces over extremely long periods of time, and that the Earth is very old.
What did Thomas Malthus predict? that the human population would grow faster than resources needed to sustain it.
What did Jean-Baptiste Lamarck propose? that the selective use or disuse of an organ led to change the organ that was then passed on to the offspring.
What did Charles Lyell explain? that the geological processes seen happening on Earth now have shaped Earth's geological features over long periods of time.
What did Alfred Wallace do? published his own theory of evolution by natural selection about the same time as Charles Darwin.
What does struggle for existence mean? the members of each species compete regularly for food and other necessary resources.
What is fitness? the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment.
What is an adaptation? any inherited characteristics that increase an organism's chance of survival.
What is natural selection? the process whereby individuals are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully.
What did Darwin nickname natural selection? survival of the fittest
What was the idea that all species,living and extinct, were derived from common ancestors linked by a "tree of life"? common descent
What are structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues? Homologous structures
What are homologous structures that are so reduced in size that they no longer function? vestigial organs
What are some examples of vestigial organs? human appendix or legs legs in skinks
Choosing to breed cows that produce the most milk or the fastest horses is called what? artificial selection
The idea that each living species has descended with changes over time from other species is called what? descent with modification
Charles Darwin's observations of finches and turtles on the Galapagos Islands led to what? his Theory of Evolution
A giraffe that stretches its neck longer by reaching for food and then passes this long-necked trait on to offspring. This is an example of what? inheritance of acquired traits
Dolphins, penguins, and sharks are distantly-related species that share similar characteristics which help them live in water. This is an example of what? Convergent evolution
Even though the Galapagos finches share a common ancestor, they have evolved to fit the ecosystems of their individual islands. this an example of what? Divergent evolution
another name for divergent evolution is? adaptive radiation
What naturalist studies fossils? Charles Darwin
On the Galapagos Islands, Darwin observed that the characteristics of many animals and plants what? varied from island to island
What statement best describes how Lamarck would explain giraffes with long necks? Some giraffes have acquired longer necks by stretching to reach food and passed that trait on.
What idea, proposed by Lamarck, was later found to be incorrect? acquired characteristics can be inherited
Proposed that Earth was shaped by geological forces that took place over millions of years. James Hutton
Proposed that organisms acquired or lost traits during their lifetime by selective use or disuse of organs. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Predicted that the human population will grow faster than the space and food needed to sustain it. Thomas Malthus
Stressed that scientists can explain past events in terms of processes occurring they can observe happening now Charles Lyell
Proposed a hypothesis to explain how living things change over time. Charles Darwin
How did Hutton's and Lyell's ideas about the formation of the Earth influence Darwin's ideas about evolution? They helped him realize that the Earth is millions of years old.
What do the differently shaped beaks of the birds on the Galapagos islands tell you about the eating habits of the birds on different islands? Each bird has different eating habits and each of the birds' prey are different sizes.
Structures that have mature forms, but develop from the same embryonic structure are called? homologous structures
Because of its similarities to artificial selection, Darwin referred to the "survival of the fittest" as what? natural selection
The idea that each living species has descended with changes from other species over time is called what? descent with modification
The natural differences between individuals of a species are referred to as what? natural variation
A human appendix, whale hipbones, and a skink's legs are examples of what? vestigial organs
What would best explain Darwin's explanation for giraffes with long necks? natural variation in the population produces some longer and some shorter necked giraffes and longer necked giraffes can reach food more easily and survive to pass on their gene.
Competition for food, space, and other resources among members of a species is called what? struggle for existence
What are the four kinds of evidence that support Darwin's theory of evolution? homologous structures, fossils, embryonic mates, and geographic distribution.
Created by: hescurlock