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Step 1 1.9.13 (2)

Key Associations 1

Key association:actinic (solar) keratosis? precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
Key association: acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury? Cushing's ulcer (incr ICP stimulates vagal gastric secretion)
Key association: acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns? Curling's ulcer (generally reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa
Key association: alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon? Skip lesions (Crohn's disease)
Key association: aneurysm, dissecting? HTN
Key association: aoricaneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta? atherosclerosis
Key association: aortic aneurysm, ascending? Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration
Key association: atrophy of the mamillary bodies. cause? Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, opthalmoplegia, confusion)
Key association: autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)? sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Key association: bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, stomach cancer? H. pylori
Key association: bacterial meningitis in adults and elderly? Neisseria meningitidis
Key association: bacterial meningitis in newborns and kids? Group B Strep (newborns), S. pneumoniae/Neisseria meningitidis (kids)
Key association: benign melanocytic nevus? spitz nevus ( most common in first 2 decades)
Key association: bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency? Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to vWF)
Key association: brain tumor (adults)? DDx? supratentorial:mets>astrocytoma (incl gioblastoma multiforme) >meningioma> schwannoma
Key association: brain tunmor (kids)? Ddx? infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentoria (craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Key association: breast cancer? infiltrating ductal carcinoma (1 in 9 US women)
Key association: breat mass. Ddx? 1.fibrocystic change 2. carcinoma (post menopausal women)
Key association: breast tumor (benign)? fibroadenoma
Key association: primary cardiac tumor in kids? rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis
Key association: cardiac manifestation of lupus? Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of the mitral valve)
Key association: cardiac tumors ( adults)? DDx? 1.metastasis 2. primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium "ball in valve"
Key association: cerebellar tonsillar herniation? Presentation? Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)
Key association: chronic arrythmia? risk? atrial fibrillation (high risk of emboli)
Key association: chronic atrophic gastritis (AID)? Risk? predisposition to gastric carcinoma( can also cause pernicious anemia)
Key association: clear cell adenocarcinoma of the uterus? DES exposure in utero
Key association: compression fracture? osteoporosis (type I : PM women. type II:elderly man or woman)
Key association: congential adrenal hyperplasia, hypertension? 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Key association: congential cardiac anomaly? VSD
Key association: congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)? Dubin-Johnson syndrome (hepatocytes can secrete bilirubin into bile)
Key association: constrictive pericarditis? Tb in developing worls, SLE in developed world
Key association: coronary artery involved in thrombosis. which is most likely? LAD>RCA>LCA
Key association: cretinism? iodine deficiency/hypothyroidism
Key association: Cushings's syndrome. DDx? 1. corticosteroid therapy 2.excess ACTH secretion by pituitary 3. Small cell lung carcinoma
Key association: cyanosis ( early; less common)? DDX? tetrology of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Key association: cyanosis (late, more common) DDx? VSD, ASD, PDA
Key association: death in CML? lupus nephropathy
Key association: dementia? DDx? 1. Alzheimers disease 2. Multiple infarcts
Key association: demyelinating disease in young women? multiple sclerosis
Key association: DIC. DDx? gram - sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma
Key association: dietary deficit? iron
Key association: diverticulum in pharynx? Zenker's diverticulum (dx by barium swallow)
Key association: ejection click? aortic/pulmonic stenosis
Key association: esophageal cancer? most common? worldwide: squamous cell carcinoma. US: adenocarcinoma
Key association: food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)? S. aureus, B. cereus
Key association: glomerulonephritis in adults? Berger's disease ( IgA nephropathy)
Key association: gynecological malignancy? endometrial cancer ( most common in US), cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)
Key association: congenital heart murmur? mitral valve prolapse
Key association: heart valve in bacterial endocarditis? 1. mitral=rheumatic fever 2/ tricuspid (IVDA) 3. aortic( 2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Key association: helminth infection in US? 1.enterobius vermicularis 2. ascaris lumbricoides
Key association: hematoma epidural? rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)
Key association: hematoma subdural? rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)
Key association: hemochromatosis? multiple blood transfusions of HFE mutation (can result in CHF, bronze diabetes, incr risk of hepatocellular carcinoma
Key association: hepatocellular carcinoma? cirrhotic liver (associated w Hep B and C)
Key association: hereditary bleeding disorder? von Wilebrand's disease
Key association:hereditary harmless jaundice? Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
Key association: HLA-B27. DDX? ankylosing spondylysis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis
Key association: HLA-DR3 or DR4? DM type I, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Key association: holosystolic murmur? VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Key association: hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis? Virchow's triad ( results in venous thrombosis)
Key association: hypertension, secondary? renal disease
Key association: hypoparathyroidism? accidental excision during thyroidectomy
Key association: hypopituitarianism? pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)
Key association: infection secondary to blood transfusion? hepatitis C
Key association: infections in chronic granulatomous disease? Staphy. aureus, E.coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)
Key association: kidney stones. DDx? 1. calcium: radiopaque 2. Struvite (ammonium)=radiopaque (formed by urease positive organisms like proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus) 3. uric acid= radiolucent
Key association: late cyanotic shunt ( uncorrected L to R becomes R to L). causes? Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA, results in pulmonary HTN/polycythemia)
Key association: liver disease? alcoholic cirrhosis
Key association: lysosomal storage disease? Gaucher's disease
Key association: male cancer? prostatic carcinoma
Key association: malignancy associated with a non infectious fever? non Hodgkin's lymphoma
Key association:malignant skin tumor? basal cell carcinoma (rarely mets)
Key association: mental retardation? 1. Down syndrome 2. Fragile X
Key association: Mets to bone? breast, lung, thyroid, testes, testes, prostate, kidney
Key association: Mets to brain? lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Key association: mets to liver? colon, gastric, pancreas, breast, lung carcinoma
Key association: mitochondrial inheritance? disease in both male and female, inherited thru females only
Key association:mitral valve stenosis? rheumatic heart disease
Key association: mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease? ALS
Key association: myocarditis? Coxsackie B
Created by: tjs2123



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