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Cancer S/S CAUTION C change in bowel/bladder A a sore that won't heal U unusual bleeding/discharge T thickening lump I indigestion/difficulty swallowing O obvious change wart/mole N nagging cough/hoarseness
Genetic tests (BRCA1, BRCA2) mutations in genes can dispose woman to high risk of breast cancer
Tissue Biopsy definitive diagnosis of abnormal cells
CBC and differential screening for leukemia's
Chest X-ray, CT scan, MRI, PET, SPECT used to visualize tumors, metastasis, or progression of cancer
CEA, CA-125, PSA, beta-hG, AFP blood tests that screen for cancers of colon, pancreas, liver, prostate, uterus, and ovaries
CEA, acronym for? carcinoembryonic antigen
CA-125, acronym for? cancer antigen 125
PSA, acronym for? prostate-specific antigen
beta-hCG, acronym for? human chronic gonadotropin
AFP, acronym for? alpha fetoprotein
Tumors are staged based on? tumor, node, metastasis
Staging Tumor (TX) unable to evaluate the primary tumor
Staging Tumor (T0) no evidence of primary tumor
Staging Tumor (Tis) tumor in situ
Staging Tumor (T1, T2, T3, or T4) size and extent of tumor
Staging Tumor (NX) unable to evaluate regional lymph nodes
Staging Tumor (N0) no evidence of regional node involvement
Staging Tumor (N1, N2, N3, or N4) number of nodes that are involved and/or extent of spread
Staging Tumor (MX) unable to evaluate distant metastasis
Staging Tumor (M0) no evidence of metastasis
Staging Tumor (MI) presence of distant metastasis
SIADH, acronym for? Syndrome of Inappropriate Diuretic Hormone
SIADH, causes? water retention, dilution of electrolytes (sodium)
SIADH, nursing response... - monitor for hyponatremia - admin. Furosemide - admin. HYPERtonic saline
define epistaxis nosebleed
Place cancer pt. in private room if WBC count less than? 1,000/mm3 & initiate neutropenic precautions
Neutropenic Precautions... - mask pt. during transport - pt. remain in room - clean room, H2O, no plants - restrict ill visitors - avoid invasive procedures/needles - keep equip. in pt. room - admin. Colony-stimulating factors
Colony-stimulation factor meds? eg. Neupogen, Neulasta
Cancer pt. should wash toothbrush in? dishwasher or rinse in bleach solution
Megesterol (Megace) is administered to? increase pt. appetite
Mouth care should be done (before / after) meals? before to enhance client's appetite
Antiemetics should be administered? (before / after meals)? before
Improvement in metallic taste can be accomplished by? - using plastic utensils - sucking hard candy - avoiding red meats
For itchy scalp associated with alopecia, pt. can use diaper rash ointment
____-based mouth washes should be avoided with mucositis Glycerin
Pt. should rinse mouth with what solution? 0.9% NaCL and half peroxide, BID w/soft toothbrush
Cancer diet considerations? soft foods, high proteins eg. mashed potatoes, scrambled eggs, cooked cereals, milk shakes, ice cream, yogurt, bananas
Bleeding precautions... - avoid IV's / injections - apply pressure @10 min. - handle pt. gently, avoid trauma
S/S Anemia - fatigue - pallor - dizziness - SOB
Anemia med to administer... Erythropoietin Alfa (Epogen)
Antianemic med to administer... Ferrous sulfate (Feosol)
S/S Thrombocytopenia - petechiae - ecchymosis - bleeding gums - nosebleeds - blood in stools, urine, vomitus
Thrombopoietic med to administer... Oprelvekin (Interleukin 11, Neumega)
Platelets should be administered if count falls below? 30,000/mm3
define Brachytherapy radiation administered internally with an implant
IV radiation drug? radionuclide iodine
Dosimeter film badge is used to? records the amount of radiation exposure
When pt. is receiving brachytherapy, visitors should? - limit visit to 30 min. - remain 6ft. from pt. - should not be pregnant - should be over 16 yrs.
A common side effect of radiation therapy is? fatigue
Effective meds against tumors that require hormone support? Leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron)
Androgenic hormones can suppress cancer in pts. with? estrogen-dependent cancer
Estrogenic hormones can suppress cancer in pts. with? testosterone-dependent cancer
Males receiving Estrogenic hormones may experience? gynectomastia, hot flashes, bone loss
Flutamide (Eulexin) is a? Androgen antagonist
Estrogen antagonists S/E? N/V, hot flashes, weight gain, vaginal bleeding, inc. risk thrombosis
The two primary cytokines used in immunotherapy are? Interleukins and Interferons
Interlulkins... help coordinate the inflammatory and immune responses of the body (lymphocytes)
Interferons... when stimulated, can exert an anti-tumor effect by activating a variety of responses
Cytokines... work to enhance the immune system
Interleukin's, monitor for? flu-like symptoms, edema
Interferon's, monitor for? peripheral neuropathy (issues w/vision, hearing, balance, gait)
Progression is the? Final stage of cancer
Progression is characterized by - increased growth rate - increased invasiveness - spread of the cancer to a distant site
Progression occurs due to? - rapid proliferation - decreased cell adhesion - production of metalloproteinase enzymes
Tumor-associated antigens the altered cell surface antigens as a result of malignant transformation
3 Methods of cancer pain management? surgery / radiation / chemotherapy
Opioids in cancer Tx, given for? moderate to severe pain
Antidepressants in cancer Tx, given for? to reduce associated depression, promote sleep, and increase serotonin levels that may improve feelings of well-being
Anticonvulsants in cancer Tx, given for? to treat neuralgia or neuropathic-type pain
Steroids in cancer Tx, given for? reduce pain by reducing swelling
Adjunctive agents (Sympatholytic agents) in cancer Tx, given for? Used to treat neuropathic pain
Skeletal muscle relaxants in cancer Tx, given for? May be used along with other pain meds for muscle spasms assoc. with cancer pain
Rectal med administration, contraindicated in pts. with? low WBC or low platelet count
Anesthetic used for isolated pain? bupivacaine and/or a corticosteroid
Intercostal nerve blocks used for? anesthetic for chest or abdominal wall pain, procedure 15 min - 1 hr.
S/S Systemic Infusion... metallic taste, ringing in ears, perioral numbness, seizures
Location of epidural space _____ space outside the dura mater of the spinal cord
Location of intrathecal space _____ the subarachnoid area within the spinal cord sheath that contains cerebrospinal fluid
External catheter placed for long-term pain management of which areas? abdomen, thorax, below umbilicus
Neurolytic ablation, involves? interrupting the nerve pathway or destroying the nerve roots that are causing pain
Neurolytic ablation may cause... loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function
Radiofrequency ablation, involves? Electrical currency creates heat on a probe guided to tumor or nerves; to destroy cancer cells or ablate nerve endings
Cryoanalgesia, involves? Uses a needle-like probe to deliver extreme cold to interfere with pain conduction via nerve pathways
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, (TENS) involve? Low-volt electrical impulses transmitted thru electrodes attached to the skin
Do not use TENS on pts. with? pacemakers or infusion pumps
metastasis is? cancer cells may invade surrounding tissues and/or spread to other areas of the body
Carcinomas arise from? epithelial tissue
Adenocarcinomas arise from? glandular organs
Sarcomas arise from? mesenchymal tissue
Leukemias are? malignancies of the blood-forming cells
Lymphomas arise from? lymph tissue
Multiple myeloma arises from? plasma cells and affects the bone
Created by: fluency
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