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Step 1 12.22.12 (2)

Endocrine I

QuestionAnswer
What are the embrologic origins of the adrenal cortex and mudulla? cortex= mesoderm, medulla= neural crest cells
What are the 6 histological layers of the adrenal gland? 1. capsule 2. zona glomerulosa 3. zona fasiculata 4. zona reticularis 5. medulla 6. chromaffin cells
What is the primary regulatory control on the zona glomerulosa? renin-angiotensin
What is the secretory products of the zona glomerulosa? aldosterone
What is the primary regulatory control on the zona fasciculata? ACTH, hypothalamic CRH
What are the major secretory products of the zona fasciculata? cortisol, sex hormones
What is the primary regulatory control on the zona reticularis? ACTH, hypothalamic CRH
What are the major secretory products of the zona reticularis? sex hormones ( androgens)
What is the primary regulatory control on the medulla? preganglionic sympathetic fibers
What is the major secretory products of the adrenal medulla? catechomaines ( NE, Epi)
What is mnemonic for the products of the different parts of the adrenal gland? GFR(glomerulosa, fasciculata, reticularis)= salt (Na+ aldosterone), sugar ( glucocorticoids), Sex (androgens). farther down = sweeter
Where is a pheochromocytoma located? adrenal medulla
Who gets neuroblastoma? children
What is a major difference between pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma? pheochromocytoma causes spisodic HTN, neuroblastoma doesnt
What is the morphology of the fetal adrenal gland? outer adult zone and inner active fetal zone. adult zone is dormant during early fetal life but secretes cortisol late in gestation
What controls cortisol secretion in the fetal adrenal? What does it do? acth and CRH from fetal pituitary and placenta. responsible for fetal lung maturation and surfactant production
What is the drainage of the right adrenal gland? Right adrenal--> right adrenal vein--> IVC
What is the drainage of the left adrenal gland? left adrenal-->left adrenal vein-->left renal vein-->IVC
What is the posterior pituitary and what does it principally make? neurohypophysis, derived from neuroectoderm. produces ADH (vasopressin) and oxytocin
What is the function of neurophysins? carry ADH and oxytocin from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary glands
What is the embryological origin of the anterior pituitary gland? What hormones does it make? from oral ectodemr (Rathke's pouch). makes FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, prolactin, GH, melanotropin (MSH)
What does the alpha subunit of the anterior pituitary gland make? common subunit to TSH, LH, FSH, hCG
What does the beta subunit of the anterior pituitary gland do? determines hormone specificty
What is a mnemonic for the basophilic pituitary hormones? B-FLAT: basophilic- FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
What pituitary gland horomones are acidophils? GH, prolactin
What is a mneomic for the hormones made by the anterior pituitary gland? FLAT PiG: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, GH
What 3 types of cells are found in islets of Langerhans? What do they do? islets arise from pancreatic buds and contain: 1. alpha: glucagon (peripheral) 2. Beta: insulin (central) 3. delta: somatostatin (interspersed)
When is insulin made and by what cells? made in beta cells of pancreas in response to ATP from glucose metabolism closing K+ channels and depolarizing cells
Why do you need insulin? Does it cross the placenta? required for adipose and SM uptake of glucose. it does not cross the placenta
What are the inhibitory effects of insulin? inhibits glucagon release by alpha cells
What are some key regulatory forces on insulin? hyperglycemia, GH, cortsiol= incr insulin. hypoglycemia, somatostatin= decr insulin Beta agonists= incr insulin release, alpha agonists= inhibit insulin release
Is serum C peptide present with exogenous insulin intake? no
What is a mnemonic for cells which do not require insulin for glucose uptake? BRICK L: Brain, RBCs, INtestine, Cornea, Kidney, Liver
What do the brain and RBCs use for glucose uptake? GLUT 1
What do the Beta islet cells, liver, kidney, and SI use for glucose uptake? GLUT-2
What is GLUT 4? used by adipose and SM for glucose uptake, responds to insulin
What does the brain use nromally vs in starvation state for energy? uses glucose normally but will use ketone bodies in starvation
Can RBCs ever use anything but glucose? no! no mitochondria
What makes glucagon and when? made by alpha cells of pancreas. secreted in response to hypoglycemia, inhibted by insulin, hyperglycemia, and somatostatin
What are the 3 major effects of glucagon? 1.glyconeogensis, gluconeogenesis 2. lipolyisis, ketone production 3. inhibiton of insulin and further glucagon release
What is the effect of TRH for hormones? TRH causes TSH and prolactin release
What is the effect of dopamine for hormones? inhibits prolactin
What is the effect of CRH fro hormones? incr ACTH
What is the effect of GHRH on hormones? incr GH
What is the effect of somatostatin in hormones? inhbiits GH, TSH
What is the effect of GnRH in hormones? incr FSH, LH
What is the effect of prolactin ion hormones? inhibits GNRH
Created by: tjs2123