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Land Development

Soil Erosion Detachment and transport or sediment particles caused by wind, rain, ice, and gravity
What do erosion rates directly compare to? The percentage of bare soil on a site
Sedimentation The deposition of soil particles
What are problems arising from construction related activities? Degradation to downstream properties and waterways. Damage to new and existing infrastructure. Dust and mud tracked onto public streets.
When is an E&SC Plan Needed? Land disturbing activities > 10,000 ft&2 Legally enforced by localities with legislative backing (fines, bonds)
What is a E&SC plan? Used to show the location and size of the various E&SC practices
What are the phases of the E&SC plan? Phase I: Initial Planning Phase II: Finish grading and protection of site infrastructure
What is a E&SC Narrative? Provides supporting calculations, includes information often redundant to feasibility report
What are factors that influence soil erosion? Rainfall frequency and distribution type, soil properties, topography, vegetation
What are the classes of sediment control measures? Filtering, Prevention, Colleciton
What are filtering measures? Silt fence, straw bales, inlet protection
What are prevention measures? Construction entrances, slope drains, outlet protection, check dams, level spreaders, seeding
What are collection measures? Diversion dikes, sediment traps, sediment basins
What are diversion dikes? Used to direct flow away from vulnerable areas and into stabilized traps, basins, or channels
What is a hydrograph? a plot of discharge versus time
What is a hyetograph? a plot of rainfall intensity versus time
What is duration? how long the storm event lasts
What is rain intensity? the rate of rainfall in in/hr
What is return frequency? The average time between events of the same volume and duration
What is the exceedance probability? The probability that a storm of specified volume and duration will be observed or exceeded in a given year
What is the rational method? Drainage basins <200 acres, computes peak discharge, not a full hydrograph. Q=CiA
What is NRCS TR-55? It is used to compute a full hydrograph, used for detention basin size estimation
What is the runoff coefficient? C is a factor between 0 and 1, indicating the fraction
What is time of concentration? The time it takes the most hydraulically remote point in a watershed to contribute runoff to the point or analysis
What is the drainage area? The total acreage draining to a point of interest is delineated by examining topography and the presence of manmade infrastructure
What are the three types of flow regimes? Overland Flow, Shallow Concentrated Flow, Channel Flow
What is overland flow? Occurs over planar surfaces. Usually observed at the headwater of a given watershed. Restricted to 100 to 300 feet.
What is shallow concentrated flow? Occurs after sheet flow begins to accumulate enough depth and velocity to begin creating small flow channels
What is concentrated flow/channel flow? Occurs when there is a well defined conveyance channel. Use manning's equation.
What is a contour? a line connecting points of equal elevation above some datum
What is a contour interval? The vertical elevation difference between adjacent contour lines
What is a TIN? Triangulated Irregular Network. Surface model comprised of triangles.
What are breaklines? Linear surface features depicting an abrupt change in elevation
Who regulates drinking water systems? The Virginia Department of Health
What influences average daily consumption? Land-use and population
What dictates Overall peak system requirements? Fire Flow
What are minor losses in pipes? losses from valves, hydrants
What is the typically pressure range in pipes? 20 psi to 80 psi
What is the most common material used in water supply pipes Ductile Iron Pipe
What is the typical range in diameter for water supply pipes? 6" to 20"
What are the most common joints in a water supply system? Push on and mechanical joints
What are the three types of valves in a water supply system? Butterfly & Gate, Blowoff, Air Release
What are blowoff valves? Used to dewater lines for repairs and maintenance. Located at low points and ends of branches
What is an air release valve? Located at the high point of a water line to dissociate the air from the water
Who regulates sanitary sewer requirements? Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
What is a sewer? A conduit for conveying wasterwater
What is a lateral? the conduit connecting an individual building to a main sewer
How much of a sewerage is comprised of water? 99%
What parameters define sewerage strength? Biological Oxygen Demand, Composition of Suspended Solids
What is BOD? Biological Oxygen Demand is the measure of the amount of organic matter present
What makes up suspended solids? 80% organic matter including fecal matter, washwater particulates, kitchen waste
What dictates wastewater system design flows? Population and land use
What are the required separations from drinking water lines to wastewater lines? 10' horizontal and 18" vertical
What is the most common sewer pipe SDR? SDR-35
What is SDR? The standard dimension ratio. Ratio of the external pipe diameter to wall thickness
What is the most common material for waste water pipes? PVC Pipe
What is a manhole? Provides an access point for inspection of the sewer system
Where must a manhole be placed? Terminal end of a line, every change in alignment, change in diameter, junctions
What is the minimum flow velocity in a wastewater pipe? 2 fps to prevent deposition
What is the minimum pipe diameter for wasterwater pipes? 8" but can less when fewer than 6 lots are served on a cul de sac.
Created by: 811015421
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