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Fall 2016 EXAM: AP

Anatomy & Physiology Fall 2016 FINAL EXAM Review: 1/Atlas, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8

The word root "homeo"... Same
The word root "hetero"... Different
An informed, uncertain, but testable idea... Hypothesis
Structure that can be observed with the naked eye... Gross anatomy
Study of cells... Cytology
Study of tissues... Histology
Simplest structures considered to be alive are... Cells
The urethra is found in the __ region of the abdomen... Hypogastric
Organ system concerning the skin... Integumentary
Self-amplifying chain of physiological events... Positive feedback system
Feet flat on the floor and together, forearms supinated, arms down at the sides... Anatomical position
Studying the anatomy of an object/organism by touch... Palpation
The heart is ___ to the lungs... Medial
The sum of all chemical reactions taking place within the body at one time... Metabolism
The greater omentum is ___ to the small intestine... Superficial
The esophagus is ___ to the trachea... Posterior
Organ system that regulates blood volume, controls acid-base balance and stimulates red blood cell production... Urinary system
Words composed of the first letter or few letters of a series of words... Acronyms
Study of structure... Anatomy
Study of function... Physiology
Methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery have replaced the ___ of the past, which was often very risky and resulted in death due to infection(s)... Exploratory surgery
Much of what we know about body function today has been gained through ___... Comparative physiology
Single, complete individual and the largest level in the hierarchy of complexity... Organism
Masses of similar cells and cell products that form a discrete region of an organ and perform a specific function... Tissues
Theory which refers to the fact that the whole organism cannot be fully explained by the actions of it's parts... Holism
Theory which explains that a large, complex system such as the human body can be better understood by studying it's simpler components... Reductionism
Changes in DNA structure/sequence... Mutations
Cutting and separating tissue to reveal structural relationships... Dissection
Invented many components of the compound microscope and named the tiny "compartments" he observed "cells"... Robert Hooke
Composed of lipids and proteins; surrounds the cellular components... Plasma membrane
Major features of human anatomy have been given standard international names prescribed by the ___.... Terminologia anatomica
Physiological effects of a person's mental state are called ___ effects... Psychosomatic
Fine detail, down to the molecular level... Ultrastructure
Rejected all eponyms and gave each structure unique Latin name(s) used world-wide... Nomina anatomica
Tendency of the body to maintain stable internal conditions... Homeostasis
Transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a specific task... Differentiation
Self-correcting mechanisms in physiology are called ___ loops Negative feedback
Terms coined from the names of people... Eponyms
Most cellular membranes are made by the... Endoplasmic reticulum
Membrane carriers resemble enzymes except for the fact that ___ do not chemically change their ligands... Carriers
Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that promote... Osmosis
Microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules are all part of the... Cytoskeleton
Human cells will swell or shrink in any solution other than a(n) ___ one.... Isotonic
___ endocytosis is more selective form of either phagocytosis or pinocytosis... Receptor-mediated
Process by which a physical pressure forces fluid through a selectively permeable membrane.... Filtration
Gates in the plasma membrane open or close in response to changes in the electrical charge difference across the membrane... Voltage-gated channels
Process by which a mechanical pressure applied to one side of the system can override osmotic pressure... Reverse osmosis
A concentrated solution that causes a cell to shrink is ___ to the cell... Hypertonic
A diluted solution that cases a cell to swell is ___ to the cell... Hypotonic
Difference in concentration between one point and another... Concentration gradient
Gates in the plasma membrane that open or close when a chemical binds to them... Liganed-gated channels
Fusion of a secretory vesicle with the plasma membrane, and release of it's contents, is called.... Exocytosis
Both ___ and peroxisomes allow liver cells to detoxify alcohol and other such substances... Smooth ER
Perforate nuclear envelope and allow limited molecular traffic through the membrane... Nuclear pores
Network of protein filaments and cylinders that structurally support a cell, etc. Cytoskeleton
Composed of carbohydrate moieties of membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins... Glycocalyx
Ability of a microscope to reveal detail... Resolution
Force exerted on a membrane by water... Hydrostatic pressure
Side of membrane facing the cytoplasm... Intracellular face
Side of the cellular membrane facing the tissue fluid... Extracellular face
Hydrostatic pressure required on one side to halt the process of osmosis... Osmotic pressure
Space enclosed by the unit membrane of the Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum... Cisternae
Both the nucleus and the ___ are surrounded by a double unit membrane... Mitochondria
When a hormone cannot enter a cell, it activates the formation of a(n) ___ inside the cell... Second messenger
Clear, structure-less gel in a cell... Cytosol
The sodium-potassium pump is a(n)... Transmembrane protein
Cells specialized for absorption of matter from the ECF are likely to show an abundance of... Microvilli
The function of cAMP in a cell is to... Activate kinases
Type of transport that can occur only in a living cell... Active transport
The cotransport of glucose derives it's energy from the ___ concentration gradient of the cell... Sodium
PRocess of imbibing ECF in which the plasma membrane sinks in and pinches off small vesicles containing droplets of fluid... Pinocytosis
Fine thread like material composed of DNA and protein found within the nucleus... Chromatin
Inner membrane of the mitochondria has folds called ___ which project like shelves into the matrix... Cristae
The process by which lysosomes digest and dispose of surplus or non-vital organelles and other cell components in order to cycle nutrients within the cell... Autophagy
A carrier that performs cotransport... Symport
ATP is required in order for this type of transport to occur... Active transport
Hairlike projections along the cell surface which play a sensory role and function in locomotion... Cilia
Direct transport of solute particles by an ATP-using membrane pump... Primary active transport
Movement of material without the aid of ATP... Passive transport
Long, single whip-like projection used primarily in movement... Flagella
Net flow of water through a membrane from high to low concentration... Osmosis
Process of eliminating material from a cell by means of a vesicle fusing with plasma membrane and releasing it's contents... Exocytosis
Transport of solute particles by a carrier that does not in itself use ATP but depends on concentration gradients produced by primary active transport... Secondary active transport
Transport of two or more different solutes in opposite directions... Countertransport
Unpaired centrioles at the base of a cilium or flagellum... Basal body
Two or more solutes being transported in the same direction... Cotransport
Short, densely-packed hair-like processes of scattered bumps o the cell surface; sensory and absorptive functions... Microvilli
Vesicular transport of particles into a cell... Endocytosis
Sacs produced by the Golgi apparatus which contain enzymes for intracellular digestion, etc. Lysosomes
Multiple layers of somewhat squarish, plump cells... Stratified cuboidal epithelium
___ epithelium is found in areas requiring flexibility such as the urinary system... Trasitional
Type of connective tissue used for energy storage, thermal insulation and heat production... Adipose
The ectoderm and mesoderm are both... Primary germ layers
Most abundant formed element in blood... Erythrocytes
Erythrocytes are also known as... Red blood cells
Connections between one cell and another... Cell junctions
Single layer of square to almost rounded cells... Simple cuboidal epithelium
External surface of the stomach is covered by a ___... Serosa
Encircle epithelial cells, joining each cell securely to the other... Tight junctions
The collagen of areolar tissue is produced by... Fibroblasts
Tendons are composed of ___ connective tissue... Dense regular
Shape of the external ear is due to... Elastic cartilage
Most abundant and only significant adipose tissue of the adult body... Yellow fat
Separates the upper layers of epithelial tissue from the connective tissue below, within the skin... Basement membrane
Occur in small numbers in mature organs/tissues through a person's life and have the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types... Adult stem cells
Fount in fetuses; store lipids in the form of multiple globules rather than one large one; quick and easy breakdown... Brown fat
Undifferentiated cells that are not yet performing any specialized function... Stem cells
Relatively stiff connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix... Cartilage
Premature, pathological tissue death... Necrosis
Artificial production of tissue and organs in the lab for implantation... Tissue engineering
Osseous tissue... Bone
Replacement of dead or damaged cells by the same cell type present beforehand... Regeneration
Replacement of dead or damaged cells with scar tissue... Fibrosis
Programmed cell death... Apoptosis
Most abundant, widely distributed and variable tissue in the body... Connective tissue
Hereditary defect in elastin which tends to show up as hyper-extensible joints, vision problems, abnormally long limbs and tall stature... Marfan syndrome
Tissue growth through cell multiplication... Hyperplasia
Muscles that are not exercised exhibit disuse ___ and their cells become smaller... Atrophy
Fluid connective tissue that travels through tubular vessels carrying nutrients throughout the body... Blood
Occupies the 'empty space' within a tissue... Ground substance
Basis for excitation... Membrane potential
Constitute most of the volume of the nervous tissue... Glial cells
Densely packed, parallel and often wavy collagen fibers... Dense regular connective tissue
Found in the heart... Cardiac muscle
Gland which maintains contact with surface/cavity by means of a duct... Exocrine
Gland which releases secretion by exocytosis... Merocrine
Glandular secretion contains the product and the disintegrated cellular parts... Holocrine
Lacks striations and is voluntary... Smooth muscle
Loose network of reticular fibers and cells, infiltrated with numerous leukocytes... Reticular tissue
Product of a gland which is beneficial to the body.... Secretion
Type of gland which releases products into the blood stream; has no duct... Endocrine
Waste product removed by means of a gland... Excretion
Abnormal redness of the skin... Erythema
Brownish black form of melanin... Eumelanin
Bruise... Hematoma
Cancer-causing radiation which leaks through our ozone layer and can be a culprit in skin cancer... Ultraviolet radiation
Covers the body and provides a barrier to pathogens and to excessive water loss... Skin
Dilating of blood vessels; plays a role in relieving body of excess heat... Vasodilation
Genetic lack of melanin... Albinism
Immune cells of the epidermis... Dendritic cells
Majority of epidermal cells... Keratinocytes
Needed for bone development and maintenance; skin is the first step of its synthesis... Vitamin D
Red pigment of blood... Hemoglobin
Reddish-yellow form of melanin... Pheomelanin
Scientific study and medical treatment of the integumentary system... Dermatology
Tough protein which fills the upper epidermal cells forming a water-proof barrier... Keratin
Undifferentiated cells that divide and give rise to the keratinocytes... Stem cells
___ sweating is sweating without noticeable wetness of the skin while maintaining a normal body temperature... Insensible
A(n) ___ burn destroys the entire dermis... Third degree
A hair is nourished by blood vessels in a connective tissue projections called the ___... Dermal papillae
A muscle that causes a hair to stand on end in a "fight or flight" sort of response... Piloerector muscle
Cells which synthesis melanin and aid in the overall production of pigmentation... Melanocytes
Blueness of the skin due to low oxygen concentration of the blood... Cyanosis
Cerumen... Earwax
The ___ consists mainly of a single layer of cuboidal to columnar stem cells and keratinocytes rising from the basement membrane.. Stratum basale
Hairs grow only during the ___ phase of the hair cycle... Anagen
Composed of clumps of dander stuck together by sebum... Dandruff
Holocrine glands that secrete into a hair follicle... Sebaceous glands
Process of removing burned skin from a burn patient... Debridement
Condition in which hair is lost from select regions of the scalp rather than thinning uniformly... Pattern baldness
Cells of this layer are keratinized and dead... Stratum corneum
The ___ is formed at the point where epidermal cells pass from stratum spinosum to stratum granulosum... Epidermal water barrier
Skin condition/appearance which most likely results from liver malfunction... Jaundice
Hair on a 6-year old child's arm is most likely... Vellus hair
Scent gland... Apocrine gland
Skin cells with a sensory role... Tactile cells
Skin cells with an immune system role... Dendritic cells
Gland which plays a role in the sense of hearing... Ceruminous glands
Most common type of skin cancer... Basale cell carcinoma
Burns which involve the epidermis and just part of the dermis... Second degree
The femur is an example of a ___ bone... Long
The vertebrae are great examples of ___ bones... Irregular
The reduction in calcium excretion, increase intestinal calcium absorption and increased calcitrol synthesis are all effects of ... PTH
Poor nutrition, lack of vitamin D and lack of exercise are all risk factors of ... Osteoporosis
Have a ruffled border and secrete hydrochloric acid... Osteoclasts
Forms blood cells and platelets... Blood marrow
___ give bones rigidity and mild flexion which helps them to support weight and not shatter... Collagen fibers
A ___ is a common sign of osteoporosis... Wrist fracture
One long bone meets another at it's ___... Epiphysis
Osteoclasts are most closely related, by common descent, to... Blood cells
The marrow cavity of an adult bone may contain... Myeloid tissue
A spurt of growth in puberty results from cell proliferation and hypertrophy in the... Epiphyseal plate
The walls between cartilage lacunae break down in the zone of... Bone deposition
Thin layer of reticular connective tissue which lines the internal marrow cavity.. Endosteum
Tiny cavities that contain the osteocytes... Lacunae
Stem cells which develop from embryonic mesenchymal cells... Osteogenic cells
Calcium phosphate crystallizes in bone as a mineral known as... Hydroxyapatite
Tiny channels through which each osteocyte has contact to the cells around it... Canaliculi
Addition of cells to the surface... Appositional growth
Seed crystals of hydroxyapatite from only when the levels of Ca and P in the tissue fluid exceed what's known as the ___ Solubility product
Calcium deficiency... Hypocalcemia
Cells that secrete collagen and stimulate calcium phosphate deposition... Osteoblasts
Most active form of Vitamin D produced mainly by the kidneys... Calcitrol
Bone is often referred to as a ___, a combination of two basic structure materials that combine the optimal properties of each... Composite
Transitional region between the epiphyseal cartilage and primary marrow cavity of a young bone... Metaphysis
Softening of the bones sometimes experienced by pregnant or poorly nourished women... Osteomalacia
Condition in which long bones of the limbs stop growing in childhood while other bone growth is unaffected... Achondroplasia dwarfism
Growth from withing by the multiplication and deposition of new cells in the interior matrix... Interstitial growth
Former osteoblasts... Osteocytes
Calcified epiphyseal plate... Ephiphyseal line
Formation of bone is called ossification or ___... Osteogenesis
Spongy bone consists of a lattice of delicate slivers of bone called spicules and ___... Trabeculae
___ marrow is found in adults and no longer produces blood. Yellow
The trabeculae of spongy bone orient themselves along lines of ___ applied by the weight of the body and it's movements... Mechanical stress
The ___ is the basic structural unit of compact bone... Osteon
Collagen fibers from the periosteum which become continuous with that of the tendons binding muscle to bone... Perforating fibers
Adult form of rickets... Osteomalacia
Break in the bone weakened by some other disease/disorder... Pathological fracture
Carpals and tarsals are ___ bones... Short
Central cavity found in a long bone... Medullary cavity
Composed of bones, cartilages and ligaments... Skeletal system
Connective tissue in which matrix is hardened by deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals... Osseous tissue
Covers surface of the bone which is part of a joint... Articular cartilage
Fracture caused by abnormal trauma to a bone... Stress fracture
Minute holes penetrating the bone... Nutrient foramina
Shaft of the bone... Diaphysis
Sheath which covers the external portion of a bone... Periosteum
Spongy layer of bone in the cranium... Diploe
Sternum and shoulder blade... Flat bones
Study of bone... Osteology
Layers of matrix which is secreted in concentric patterns... Lamellae
___ vertebrae do NOT have transverse foramina. Thoracic
The leg, which extends from knee to ankle Crural region
Most distinctive features include a thick stout body and blunt, squarish spinous process for attachment of muscles... Lumbar vertebrae
The tubercle of a rib articulates with the ___ of a vertebrae Transverse process
The bone that supports your body weight when you are sitting down is the... Ischium
The disc-shaped head of the radius articulates with the ___ of the humerus. Capitulum
Region of the skeleton which consists of the bones providing structure to the body's torso. Axial
The region of the skeleton which consist of the bones of the appendages and their attachments to the torso. Appendicular
The most complex part of the skeleton, with a total of twenty-two bones. Skull
Immovable joints which join the bones of the skull together. Sutures
Bones that are included in the skull and lie anterior to the cranial cavity. Facial
Supports body weight and allows for movement of our upper torso and head Vertebral column
Supports the arm and links it to the axial skeleton Pectoral girdle
Most commonly fractures bone in the body. Clavicle
Point of the shoulder is due to the ___, a projection of the scapula. Acromion
Articulates with the glenoid cavity of the shoulder blade. Humerus
Has a trochlear notch which articulates with the trochlea of the humerus. Ulna
Lateral forearm bone Radius
The thumb Pollex
Marks the front portion of our pelvic girdle, where two pelvic bones come together. Pubic symphysis
The femur meets the ___ to form the knee joint. Tibia
Bony outgrowth or protruding part Protuberance
Rough elevated surface Tuberosity
Rounded knob that articulates with another bone Head
Shallow, broad or elongated basin Fossa
Small pit Fovea
Smooth, flat and slightly concave/convex articular surface Facet
Air filled space in a bone Sinus
Two massive processes unique to the femur Trochanters
Funnybone Humeral epicondyle
Attached to the thorax only my muscles Scapula
Bones of fingers and toes Phalanges
Leg bone which does not bear any of the body's weight Fibula
Longest and strongest bone of the body Femur
Medial forearm bone Ulna
Shin bone Tibia
Supports arm and links it to the axial skeleton Pectoral girdle
Lateral forearm bone Radius
Canal through a bone Meatus
Created by: SavannahElkins



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