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Pharm Final 331

QuestionAnswer
Hydrocodone Antitussive Narcotic Control dry, non-productive cough
Another antitussive aside from hydrocodone Dextromethorphan
AE of antitussives respiratory depression dizziness dry mouth
Flunisolide (AeroBid) Topical Nasal Steroid Decongestant- decreases inflammatory response, reduces edema
AE of topical nasal steroid decongestants Inc risk for infection local burning, stinging, dryness, rebound congestion! Topical doesn't cause ^BP, but systemic does
Diphenhydramine (Bendadryl) Antihistamine Used for allergies, seasonal rhinitis, upper respiratory congestion, sleep aid
AE of diphenhydramine Anticholinergic SE: dry mouth, urinary retention, drowsiness, sedation, bradycardia, constipation Caution with arrythmias, cardiac pt
PT teaching for diphenhydramine Drowsiness may occur, caution in driving and using machinery. Fall risk, esp in elderly pt.
Guaifenesin (Mucinex) Expectorant For: increasing productive cough irritates gut muscles Reduces adehesiveness of mucus by reducing surface tension
AE of expectorants GI effects, N/V
Acetylcystine (Mucomyst) Mucolytic Liquify secretions to increase productive cough Reduce viscosity of mucus to make it easier to bring up Usually only used in hospital with impaired fxn pt (stroke, elderly)
Six lower respiratory problems COPD Asthma ARDS Atelectasis Pneumonia Bronchitis
Xanthines (-phylline) bronchial smooth muscle dilators Do not use with liver dsyfxn Used for COPD
Epinephrine (Sus-Phrine) (-rine) (-terol) Sympathomimetic Used for acute anaphylaxis, acute asthma attack, acute bronchospasm from COPD/asthma/allergy
AE of epinephrine Sympathomimetic effects: increased HR, BP, RR, tachycardia, restlessness Decreased effect of beta-blockers
Beta 2 Agonist Inhaler Albuterol Used for long acting treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (doesn't work to treat bronchospasm caused by non-specific beta blockers!)
AE of Albuterol Sympathomimetic effects If taken in combo with long acting Beta 2 agonist like Foradil could cause tachycardia)
Budesonide (Pulmicort) Inhaled Steroid (also Beclomethasone) Decrease inflammatory response in airway so cause to open more
AE of inhaled steroids Increased risk for infection Possible fungal infection in mouth and larynx Local effects from inhalation like sore throat, coughing, dry mouth
Pt teaching for inhaled steroids Always wash with alcohol based mouthwash immediately after inhaling-prevent fungal infections
Predosone Systemic steroid used also for Asthma Decrease inflammatory response AE: inhibits prostoglandin, which inhibits mucus formation so possible ulcer! Often put on prophylactic proton pump inhibitors
Zafirlukast Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist (-lukast) Decreases inflammatory response Used for asthma and allergy in adults and CHILDREN OVER 5 Blocks SRSA
AE of leukotriene receptor antagonists Increased risk for infection increased liver enzymes headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia, diarrhea, abd. pain
Drug-drug interactions with leukotriene receptor antagonists Warfarin (anticoagulant) Ca+ channel blockers (BP meds) propanalol (Beta blocker!) Theophylline (Xanthene!) cyclosporine (Immune suppressant) Asprin (Salicylate)
Cromolyn Mast Cell Stablizer Used for asthma and allergy Prevents release of inflammatory and broncho-constricting substances Can be used prophylactically
AE of cromolyn swollen eyes, nausea, dry mouth, tachycardia, headache
(-tropium) Anticholinergics Block vagal nerve mediated response causes bronchodilation Causes anticholinergic SE (so like sympathomimetic effects)
What is a normal potassium level? 3.5-5
What is a normal sodium level? 35-45
What are the five classes of diuretics? 1.Thiazide and thiazide-like 2. loop diuretics 3.Osmotic diuretics 4.Potassium-sparing diuretics 5.carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Hydrochlorothiazide Thiazide diuretic (all end in (-thiazide) Inhibits reabsorption of Na+ and CL- at distal tubule. Leads to increased secretion of Na and Cl and H2O Used for hypertension
AE of thiazide diuretics nocturia muscle cramps/spasms possible electrolyte imbalance-esp. hypokalemia! orthostatic hypotension dry mouth
Furosimide (Lasix) Loop Diuretic Inhibits reabsorption of Na and Cl from Loop of Henle and distal tubule Leads to Na excretion and H2O excretion
Caution with Lasix: Sensitivity to sulfa drugs may have rx with lasix
AE of loop diuretics (Lasix) Possible HYPERglycemia Orthostatic hypotension rash glycosuria
Mannitol Osmotic diuretic Elevates osmolarity of glomerular filtrate, leads to loss of H2O, Na and Cl
AE of osmotic diuretics thirst fluid and electrolyte imbalance, HYPOtension, risk for tachycardia, arrythmias
Spironolactone (Aldactone) Potassium-Sparing Diuretic blocks effects of aldosterone in renal tubule, causes loss of Na and retention of K+
AE of potassium sparing diuretics HYPERkalemia, irregular menses, gynocomastia, hirsutism & deepening of voice (in women), menstrual disturabances
Acetazolamide (Diamox) Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors used for mt. sickness and glaucoma Not used often cause of SE
AE of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Bone marrow suppression, renal calculi, weakness, fatigue, rash, urinary frequency
SE of all diuretics Urinary frequency, possible fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Oxybutynin (Ditropan) Urinary tract antispasmodic: used for severe UTI with spasms
AE of urinary tract antispasmodics Similar to anticholinergic-drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, urinary retention, blurred vision
Doxazosin (Cardura) Treatment for BPH (alpha 1 selective adrenergic blocking agent-also used for hypertension) Causes dilation of arterioles, decreased sympathetic effects on bladder
AE of Doxazosin SIGNIFICANT orthostatic HYPOtension! CHF, edema, arrythmia Do not give with other vasodilators!
Dopamine Alpha and Beta Adrenergic Agonist Also norepinephrine Used for SHOCK, bronchospasm, severe acute asthma titrated to cardiac output Caution: do not allow extravasation
Contraindications for dopamine pheochromocytoma, PVD, hypovolemia, tachyrythmias, OTC cold and allergy meds
What to monitor when giving dopamine Renal, liver, serum electrolytes, I&O, VS, ECG, light exposure (optical prep) void prior to admin to avoid urinary retention
AE of dopamine CNS effects: dizziness, confusion, headac Bradycardia, arrythmia, severe orthostatic hypotension Bronchospasm, respiratory distress
Phentolalamine Non-specific alpha adrenergic blocker Use to minimize tissue damage from extravasation
SE of phentolalamine prolonged and acute hypotensive episodes tachycardia arrythmias
Propalanlol (Inderol) Beta-Adrenergic Blocker Used for HYPERtension, angina, migraines (anxiety in public speaking)
SE of Nonselective beta blockers bradycardia, arrythmia, bronchospasm
Drug -drug interactions of Propanalol Insulin/antidiabetic meds Clonadine NSAIDs
Contraindications for nonselective beta blockers Do not give to diabetics, people baseline bradycardia (athletes), COPD, asthma (causes bronchospasm)
Beta-1 SElective Blockers Metapropalol, Atenalol Used for HYPERtension, angina, glaucoma
Contraindiactions for Beta-1 selective blockers COPD, thyroid disease, sinus bradycardia, CHF, hypotension
Dr-dr interactions with beta1 blockers NSAIDs injectible lidocaine
Created by: SarahTzipporah