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1st 9 wk Sci. ch. 3

Science 1st 9 wk ch. 3 (Haggard/7th gr)

Element any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Compound when two or more elements combine chemically
Organic Compound any compound that contains the element carbon
Selectively Permeable Membrane Some substances can pass through this kind of membrane, while other substances cannot pass through.
Diffusion the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; it is the main method by which small molecules move across the cell membrane
Osmosis the diffusion of WATER molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
Passive Transport the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using cellular energy (ex. diffusion and osmosis)
Active Transport the movement of materials through a cell membrane USING cellular energy
Photosynthesis the process by which a cell captures energy from sunlight and uses it to make food
Respiration the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose; cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain
Chlorophyll the main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts (green color)
Fermentation an energy-releaseing process that does not require oxygen (some single-celled organisms live where there is no oxygen, such as deep in the ocean or in the mud in swamps, and they obtain energy this way
Mitosis the stage during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei
Why is water important for a cell? Most chemical reactions in cells require water.
What important role do enzymes play? They speed up chemical reactions.
How does photosynthesis help heterotrophy? It creates food they can eat.
How are photosynthesis and respiration related? They have opposite equations. Together, these two processes keep the levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere fairly constant.
Explain what occurs during each of th two stages of photosynthesis. p. 88-89 1.) Chloroplasts in plant cells capture energy from sunlight. 2.) The captured light energy is used to produce sugars and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.
Explain what occurs during each stage of respiration. 1.) In cytoplasm, glucose is broken down into smaller molecules and a small amount of energy is released. 2.) In mitochondria, the smaller molecules combine with oxygen to produce water and carbon dioxide. This reaction releases a large amount of energy.
Describe a DNA molecule. (How is it shaped? What makes up each rung of the DNA ladder?) It is spiral-shaped, like a spiral staircase. The rungs consist of pairs of nitrogen bases: A-T and C-G.
What is copied during DNA replication? the cell's DNA
Study the comparison chart of photosynthesis and respiration.
Cell Wall provides shape and protection; found in plant cells only
Cell Membrane separates cell from environment, and controls what enters and leaves; found in plant and animal cells
Nucleus controls cellular activities, and this is where the chromosomes are located; found in plant and animal cells
Nucleolus p.62 site where ribosomes are made; found in plant and animal cells
Cytoplasm jelly-like substance that holds other organelles in cell, and this is the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus; found in plant and animal cells
Mitochondria provides energy for cell; found in plant and animal cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) transports liquids, proteins, and other materials through the cel; found in plant and animal cells
Ribosomes produce proteins; found in plant and animal cells
Golgi bodies receive proteins and other materials and packages them for storage or transport; found in plant and animal cells
Chloroplasts capture sunlight for energy used to produce food through photosynthesis; found in plant cells only
Vacuoles store and transport substances like food, water, and waste; found in plant and animal cells
Lysosomes store enzymes, and used to break down large molecules, cell parts, and even whole cells; found in plant and animal cells
Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts (with chlorophyll) energy is captured, raw materials are water and carbon dioxide, end products are glucose and oxygen,
Respiration occurs in cytoplasm and mitochondria, energy is released, raw materials are glocuose and oxygen, end products are water and carbon dioxide
photosynthesis chemical equation Carbon dioxide + water + light energy -->glucose + oxygen
respiration chemical equation glucose + oxygen -->carbon dioxide + water + energy
Created by: hudsonl