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Nociceptive pain Tissue injury Localized Throbbing/aching
Somatic nociceptive pain Can be skin, subcutaneous tissue, joints, tendons, muscles, bones
Visceral pain Large interior organs Constant or intermittent
Neuropathic pain Lesion of nerves Injury to PNS or CNS Burning, shooting
Acute pain Short term, dissipates after surgery
Thermoregulation Balance between heat lost and heat produced Controlled by hypothalamus
Non shivering thermogenesis Occurs in newborns Cannot shiver so they rely on vasoconstriction through an increase in norepinephrine
Malignant hyperthermia Increased temp developed as a response to anesthetic
Heatstroke Heat depresses hypothalamic function and overwhelmed heat loss mechanisms
Heat exhaustion Profuse diaphoresis that results in excess water and electrolyte balance
Ventilation Movement of gases in/out of lungs
Diffusion Movement of oxygen and CO2 between alveoli and red blood cells
Perfusion Distribution of red blood cells to/from pulmonary capillaries
Hypercarbia Increased ventilatory effort, removes excess CO2
Hypoxemia Low levels of arterial oxygen
Orthopnea Shortness of breath when lying flat
Syncope Light headedness, fainting
Cheyne-Stokes respirations Rate/depth of ventilations are -irregular -alternating periods of apnea and hyperventilation
Kussmauls respirations Respirations are -abnormally deep -increase in rate
Biots respirations Respirations are -shallow for 2-3 breaths -irregular period of apnea
Aphasia Language impairment due to brain damage
Brocas aphasia Expressive Client can understand language but not express themselves
Wernickes aphasia Receptive Client can hear sounds but cannot understand them
Global aphasia Most common and severe form of aphasia Comprehension and speech are severely reduced, reading and writing are impaired
Epidermis Thin tough outer layer Stratified Sheds every 4-6 weeks
Dermis CT and collagen Resists tearing
Stratum germinativum Basal cell layer Forms new cells
Stratum corneum Outer layer Dead keratinized cells
Subcutaneous layer Adipose tissue made of fat cells
Xerosis Dry skin
Pruritus Itchy skin
Alopecia Hair loss
Hirsutism Excess or shaggy hair
Vitiligo Absence of melanin pigment In patches
Erythema Intense redness of skin Excess blood in dilated superficial arteries Common with fever, inflammation, blushing
Cyanosis Bluish discoloration Decreased perfusion Indicates hypoxemia
Jaundice Yellow pigmentation to the skin Rising amounts of bilirubin in the blood
Diaphoresis Perfuse perspiration
Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Hyper- skin feels soft and smooth Hypo- skin feels rough, dry, flaky
Edema Fluid accumulating in intercellular spaces, swelling
Scleroderma Hard skin Chronic CT disorder associated with decreased mobility
Senile lentigines 'Liver spots' Non malignant
Keratosis Raised thick areas of pigmentation Crusty, scaly, warty
Acrochordons Skin tags (overgrowth)
Myalgia Muscle pain, cramping, aching
Hemiplegia One sided paralysis
Hemiparesis One sided weakness
Ankylosis Stiffness or fixation of joint
Crepitation Audible and palpable crunching that accompanies movement
Osteoporosis Decrease in skeletal bone mass Occurs when bone resorption is greater than formation
Rheumatoid arthritis Chronic inflammatory disease of joints and surrounding CT
Osteoarthritis Noninflammatory localized disorder -deterioration of cartilage and bone, -formation of new bone
Right upper quadrant Liver Gallbladder Duodenum Head of pancreas Right kidney/adrenal Hepatic flexure of colon Part of ascending/transverse colon
Left upper quadrant Stomach Spleen Left lobe of liver Body of pancreas Left kidney/adrenal Splenic flexure of colon Part of transverse/descending colon
Right lower quadrant Cecum Appendix R ovary R ureter R spermatic cord
Left lower quadrant D colon S colon L ovary L ureter L spermatic cord
Dyschezia Pain due to constipation
Melena Black tarry stool due to blood
Steartorrhea Excess fat in stool
Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing
Polyguria Excessive quantity of urine
Oligurea Decreased quantity of urine
Dysuria Pain or burning when urinating
Created by: krickcurtis