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Med/Surg Sensory


Miosis Constriction of the pupil
Mydriasis dilation of the pupil
Myopia Nearsightedness
Hyperopia Farsightedness
Retinoscopy Scans retina to objectively determine visual acuity (objective)
Refractometry Tests myopia/hyperopia - "this one, or this one is clearer?" (subjective)
Visual field perimetry peripheral vision evaluation
Ultrasonography/sonogram ID foreign objects in the eye
Fouorescein angiography/angiogram uses dye to look for vessel problems in the eye
Glaucoma Increased intraocular pressure
Primary Open-angle glaucoma Most common form of glaucoma
Primary Open-angle glaucoma comes how? This kind of glaucoma is insidious in its onset AND in its progress
what happens with no treatment of Primary Open-angle glaucoma blindness
Angle-closure glaucoma This kind of glaucoma is as a result of a sudden blockage of the anterior angle at the base of the iris
Surgery for glaucoma ExPRESS glaucoma surgery - shunt placed for drainage
Adrenergic glaucoma medications, beta blockers, alpha agonists, carbonic anhydrase reduce fluid production in the eye
Prostalandin Analogs, alpha agonists, increase drainage - used to treat glaucoma
major drug used to decrease intraocular fluid production timolol (does what for the eyes?)
For reference to eye medications and procedures PDR - physicians desk reference
First choice in surgeries to correct glaucoma laser
this kind of glaucoma comes as a result of decreased outflow of aqueous humor Primary open-angle glaucoma
this kind of glaucoma comes as a result of blocked outflow of aqueous humor Primary angle-closure glaucoma
This kind of glaucoma comes as a result of another systemic condition that blocks the outflow channels in some way secondary glaucoma
glaucoma is characterized by what kind of vision tunnel (no peripheral)
What kind of glaucoma results in sudden, excruciating pain in or around the eye? acute angle closure glaucoma
Acute angle-closure glaucoma results in what symptoms excrusiating pain around the eye, nausea, vomiting, colored halos around lights, blurred vision, ocular redness.
goal of glaucoma treatments reduce IOP (intraocular pressure). Does not cure glaucoma - only controls
non-invasive surgery to use when pt doesnt take drugs or drugs have been ineffective Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT)
A normal affect of drops that should be considered normal with glaucoma stinging
reasons for eye inflamation bacteria, virus(herpes,shingles), fungus<br> seasonal allergies
Another name for conjunctivitis Pink eye
Normal SS of conjunctivitis redness,tearing,itching,burning,possible white exudate
Another name for hordeolum sty
Cause of hordeolum infection of the sebaceous gland
Treatment of hordeolum warm, moist compresses 4X a day & lid scrubs
Topical Drug for eye infection Erythromycin
SS of conjunctivitis Redness, crusty eyelashes
Good treatment for viral conjunctivitis cold compress
procedure of putting eyedrops in a newborn baby to treat conjunctivitis Ophthalmia neonatorum
dry AMD (age-related macular degeneration) is characterized by what symptom? decreasing nearsightedness
between dry and wet age-related macular degeneration which is the most common dry
Which form of age-related macular degeneration is more severe wet
Wet AMD is preceded by what? dry AMD
AMD is related to what? retinal ageing - yellow plaques start the process. Wet results from the growth of new vessels that begin to leak
test for macular degeneration amsler grid - held 14 inches from the pt. Contortion or missing parts is a positive indicator
which form of AMD is faster progressing wet
Dry form of AMD has small yellow deposits called what drusen
What is the definitive cure for AMD none. Many homeopathic options but nothing proven
Macular degeneration has what SS small spots collect at the center of vision and progressively gets worse
Risk factors for retinal detachment age, cataract extraction, degeneration, trauma, severe myopia, diabetes
What causes retinal detachment Retinal necrosis
SS of retinal detachment Shadows, black areas in vision, cobweb or hairnet ring in the field of vision. Once retina has detached patient describes loss of vision like a curtain coming across the field of vision
Surgical management of retinal detachment scleral buckle method and laser treatment(put bubble into the eye) - designed to keep the retina from detaching completely. Vision is not improved.
Cure for retinal detachment No cure
Retinopathy is caused by what? microvascular damage to the retina (ie. high blood sugars in diabetic retinopathy)
How do you prevent further damage to retina in diabetic retinopathy control blood sugars!
S/S of retinopathy photopsia(light flashes) and visual disturbances
A staring expression (big eyes) commonly found in people with Graves Disease or Hyperthyroidism is known as what Stellwags sign or exophthalmos
other ways to get visual disturbances/blindness CMV(herpes) comes out due to immunosupression from HIV or cancer.<br> Lyme disease
Lyme Disease bite of a tick, can affect the vision
Aids for altered vision magnifiers, high intensity lamps, computers, large print books, books on tape, large clocks/watches, and glasses
Vision aids for words Diffuse bright lights w/ no shadows; red pinks and yellows; extra space between words; edges, borders and boundries are difficult to see
Nursing Diagnoses Risk for injury; self care deficits; grieving
Conductive Hearing Loss Interference of sound transmission through external and middle ear
Sensorineural Hearing Loss Impairment of function of the inner ear or eighth cranial nerve
Mixed hearing loss both conductive and sensorineural
Clinical Manifestations to hearing loss no response to communication; loud speech; listen to TV at increased volume; tilting head; faulty speech articulation
etiology of conductive hearing loss ear obstruction, infection, otosclerosis, tympanosclerosis, trauma to tympanic membrane
Otosclerosis spongy bone develops from the bony labyrinth, preventing movement of the footplate of the stapes in the oval window
Tympanosclerosis calcification of tissues in the middle ear
Prevention of conductive hearing loss (primary, secondary, tertiary) Primary: Minimize risks, Secondary: Early detection, Tertiary: Hearing rehabilitation programs
Etiology of sensorial hearing loss (air) Presbycusis = old ears, congenital hearing loss, noise-induced hearing loss, benign and malignant tumors, Meniere's disease
Tonometry testing for intraocular pressure (glaucoma)
Refractometry how much eye has changed? contracting a stigma?
Visual field perimetry checks peripheral vision
Audiometry headphones on, raise hand when you hear the sound
Rinne test a tuning fork is struck to produce sound and vibration. placed against the mastoid bone
Weber test place an activated tuning for on the midline of the skull or the forehead
Tx of hearing loss profound hearing loss that is sensorineural use cochlear implants, hearing aid
Cause of meniere's disease unknown; may be related to fluid in inner ear; precipitated by a viral infection
s/s of meniere's disease vertigo, tinnitus, and regressive unilateral hearing loss, (men and women affected equally)
Meniere's disease may be gradual or sudden; recurrent attacks of vertigo - room spinning, N/V, hypotension, diaphoresis, and nystagmus
Drugs for Meniere's disease Sedatives, anticholinergics, vasodilators, antihistamines
surgical for Menieree's disease endolymphatic shunt, vestibular nerve section
Home care for Meniere's disease Diuretics, antihistamines, vasodilators, vitamins, Valium, low-salt diet, restriction of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol intake
Earache (otalagia) eitology infection, external ear trauma, foreign bodies, and eustachian tube disorders
infections of what in earaches otitis externa, tympanic membrane infection, otitis media, mastoiditis, and cholesteatoma
pathophysiology of otalagia (earache) inflammatory process
clinical manifestations of earache pain and pressure
Medical Management of earache promote healing, alleviate pain, and restore normal function
Ear drops otic drops - use wick, anesthetics, antibiotics, and steroids
Otalagia (earache) surgical management Myringotomy and tube placement
Myringotomy involves an incision in the tympanum to release the increased pressure and exudate from the middle ear
Hyposmia decreased sense of smell due to aging- smoking, chewing tobacco
Anosmia can't detect odor
Created by: mwillis