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GC Chapter 18

Endocrine System

This system regulates function with chemical messengers to manage functions long term Endocrine System
Specific cells that contain receptors for specific hormones target cells
chemical messengers that are released into in one tissue and transported in the blood to alter activities of specific tissues hormones
hormones that are small molecules that are structurally related to amino acids Amino acid derivitives, like t4 and catecholamines like epinephrine, melatonin
chains of amino acids that begin as prohormones until they are secreted Peptide hormones, glycoproteins such as TSH, LH, FSH and short polypeptides like ADH, OXT, GH, PRL
steroid and eicosanoids Lipid derivitives, such as Leukotrienes, prostaglandins, androgens, corticosteroids, calitriol
Hormones that circulate freely Free hormones
Hormones that circulate with use of transport proteins Bound hormones, like thyroid and steroid hormones
a hormone bound to a cell first messenger
acts as an enzyme activator, inhibitor or coenzyme second messenger
C amp, G amp and ca ions second messengers
when binding of hormone to membrane receptor causes thousands of second messengers inside the cell Amplification
process by which there are decreased number of hormone receptors when levels are high, and decrease sensitivity of receptors Down regulation
absence of a hormone increases the amount of receptors along with increasing sensitivity Up regulation
hypothalamic hormone release is controlled by this mechanism negative feedback
This reflex regulates hormone secretion by the heart pancreas parathyroid gland, and digestive tract Simple endocrine reflexes
this reflex utilizes 2+ hormones and more intermediary steps Complex endocrine relex
adenohypophysis anterior pituitary
neurohypophysis posterior pituitary
portion of the hypophyseal portal system where hypothalamic neurons release regulatory factors into interstitual fluid median eminence
function of the hypophyseal portal system to ensure regulatory factors reach intended target cells before entering general circulation
hypothalamic regulatory hormone that stimulate synthesis of and secretion of one or more hormones of the adenohypophysis Releasing hormones
hypothalamic regulatory hormone that prevent synthesis of and secretion of hormones of the adenohypophysis Inhibiting hormones
Hormones made in the hypothalamus but secreted by the pituitary gland oxytocin, ADH
Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus to influence the pituitary Releasing hormones
Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary following secretion of releasing hormone TSH ACTH, LH, FSH
Effect of thyroid hormones that causes the cell to consume more energy causing heat generation Calorigenic effect
Thyroid hormones are bound in blood by globulins for this purpose creating reserves
secreted by C cells in the thyroid to lower ca in blood calcitonin
Role of PTH antagonist for calcitonin
function of this is to store lipids, like cholesterol and fatty acids, make corticosteroids adrenal cortex
Secretion of Aldosterone in Glomerulosa is stimulated by drop in BP and Blood Volume
Secretion of glucocorticoids in the Fasciculata is regulated by negative feedback, inhibiting ACTH and CRH
Secretion of Androgens in Reticularis is stimulated by ACTH
exocrine portions of the pancreas secrete digestive enzymes and buffers
Alpha cells of the isle of langerhans secrete Glucagon
Beta cells of the isle of langerhans secrete insulin
when glucose appears in the urine, increasing urine volume in DM polyuria
secreted by the kidneys, increases absorbtion of ca and phosphorus in the digestive tract Calcitriol
secreted by the kidney, used to turn angiotensin I into angiotensin II to increase BP Renin
secreted by the kidneys, increases production of RBCs in bones, useful during hypoxia erythropoeitin
secreted by nurse cells in the testes to support differentiation and maturation of sperm cells inhibin
after ovulation formation of corpus luteum cause release of estrogen progestins from the follicles
PTH and calcitonin have this effect antagonist
GH and glucocorticoids have this effect synergistic
estradiol and progesterone have this effect permissive, estradiol makes progesterone
GNRH pulse generator, estradiol and progesterone feedback have this effect ingegrative, to allow ovulatory cycle
Fight or flight phase of GAS Alarm phase
phase of GAS in which metabolism is upticked, water and electrolytes are conserved, mobilization of energy reserves Resistance phase
phase of GAS in which systems fail, results in starvation Exhaustion phase
Created by: 100000860991270