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Psych Final Ch 8

Ch 9

QuestionAnswer
Thinking the mental process of manipulating information by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting critically or creatively
Subconscious processes mental processes occurring outside of consious awareness but accessible to consciousness when necessary
Non-conscious processes mental processes occurring outside of and not available to consciousness
Implicit learning when you have acquired knowledge about something without being aware how you did so, and without being able to state exactly what you have learned
Mindlessness mental inflexibility, inertia, and obliviousness
Heuristic a rule of thumb that suggests a course of action or guides problem solving but oes not guarantee an optimal solution
Affect heuristic the tendency to consult one’s emotions instead of estimating probabilities objectively
Availability heuristic the tendency to judge the probability of a type of event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances
Framing effect the sense of fairness takes precedence over rational self-interest when people make economic choices
Hindsight bias the tendency to overestimate one’s ability to have predicted an event once the outcome is known
Confirmation bias the tendency to pay attention only to information that confirms one’s own beliefs
Mental set tendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems
Cognitive dissonance a state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person’s belief is incongruent with his/her behavior
Justification of effort the tendency of people to increase their liking for something they have worked hard for or suffered to attain
Critical thinking thinking reflectively, and productively, and evaluating evidence
Creative thinking the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways, and to devise unconventional solutions to problems
Intelligence an inferred characteristic of an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment
Psychometric approach to intelligence the measurement abilities, traits, and processes
g factor a general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underline specific mental abilities and talents
Mental age (MA) measure of mental development expressed in years
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults, from age two through mature adulthood, also assists in the diagnosis of a learning disability, developmental delay, mental retardation or giftedness
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognition in adults 16-89, also used in diagnostics criteria for mental retardation and ADHD
Stereotype threat burden of doubt and anxiety one feels about his or her performance due to negative stereotypes about his or her group
Triarchic theory of intelligence analytical (comparing, analyzing, and evaluating), creative (inventing solution to new problems, transfer skills to new situations), practical (applying the things you know to everyday contexts)
Theory of multiple intelligence theory by Howard Gardner that there are nine types of intelligence, or “frames of mind” and that everyone has these intelligences in varying degrees
Alfred Binet developed the idea of mental age
Howard Gardner theory of multiple intelligence
William Stern devised the term IQ
Robert Sternberg triarchic theory
David Wechsler performance tasks
Created by: lygordon