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Ch. 4 (Final)

Volcanoes and Extrusive Rocks

The last volcano to erupt in the continental 48 states was __. Mount St. Helens
The term ___ is used for molten rock on the Earth's surface. lava
Condensation of the water vapor by degassing magma during the time following Earth's formation produced the ____. hydrosphere
_____ are tunnel-like caves within a lava flow. Lava tubes
Shield volcanoes have ___ bases and ___ inclined slopes. broad; gently
Occasionally, a volcano will spew large amounts of fine volcanic dust into the high atmosphere. This dust can have the effect of __. All of the answers are correct.
What are the three factors that influence viscosity of a lava? silica content, temperature, dissolved gases
A _____ is a mixture of gas and pyroclastic debris that is so dense that it hugs the ground as it flows rapidly into low areas. pyroclastic flow
The Roman city of _____ was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD Pompeii
The more _____ the lava, and the greater the amount of gas trying to escape, the more violent the eruption. viscous
Because _____ magmas are the most viscous they are associated with the most violent eruptions. silica-rich
The most abundant silicic volcanic rock is __. rhyolite
The most common mafic volcanic rock is __. basalt
A _____ volcano is composed of alternating layers of pyroclastic fragments and solidified lava flows. composite
_________ crystallizes from an intermediate composition lava. Andesite
Eruptions of shield volcanoes fed by mafic magma tend __. not to be explosive or particularly dangerous
A _________ is a volcanic depression much larger than the original crater, formed when the volcano collapses into a vacated magma chamber. caldera
_____ describes the surface of a basalt flow with a smooth ropy surface. Pahoehoe
_____ describes the surface of a basalt flow with a jagged, rubble surface. Aa
A ______ is a volcano constructed of pyroclastic fragments ejected from a central vent. cinder cone
A _________, a mixture of gas and volcanic debris, may blast out laterally under a viscous plug capping a volcano. pyroclastic flow
Created by: Thomas.Siu