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Ch.5 (Final)

Weathering and Soils

(T/F) The term mechanical weathering refers to changes in a rock that are physical; there is little or no chemical change. True
(T/F) Chemical weathering will eventually change a quartz crystal into clay minerals. False
(T/F) The reduction of pressure on a body of rock can cause it to crack as it expands. True
(T/F) Plants, such as roots growing in cracks, and animals compacting the soil, have little influence on mechanical weathering. False
(T/F) Without chemical weathering, the elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would have long ago made the Earth too hot to sustain life. True
(T/F) Oxygen is abundant in the atmosphere but it does not combine with minerals of the Earth's crust. False
(T/F) An acid is a chemical compound that gives off hydrogen ions (H+) to a chemical reaction. True
(T/F) When feldspar is attacked by carbonic acid it forms clay minerals. True
(T/F) The single most important agent for the chemical weathering is temperature. False
(T/F) The B-horizon in soil is the zone of accumulation. True
(T/F) Sand-size grains of feldspar can be preserved in a soil profile over great time periods because of feldspar's resistance to chemical weathering. False
___ is the picking up and physical removal of rock particles by an agent such as wind, flowing liquid water, or glaciers. Erosion
_______ refers to the group of destructive processes that change the physical and chemical character of rocks at the Earth's surface. Weathering
Chemical weathering generally proceeds __. along contacts between mineral grains
_______ is a byproduct of rock weathering. Soil
Water that has trickled down into a joint in a rock can freeze, expand, and _____. widen the crack and hastening the rock's disintegration
Frost wedging is most effective __. in areas with many days of freezing and thawing
The removal of a great weight of rock above a batholith by erosion allows the granite to expand forming ______. sheet joints
The ____ describes the process in which this dominant greenhouse gas circulates among Earth systems. carbon cycle
The most important natural source for the formation of acid for rock weathering at the Earth's surface is dissolved _______. carbon dioxide
_______ are commonly left after complete chemical weathering. Quartz and clay minerals
What, in terms of Earth systems, forms an essential interface between the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere? soil
When feldspar is attacked by carbonic acid it forms _____. a clay mineral
_____ is the mineral least susceptible to chemical attack on the Earth's surface. Quartz
Olivine weathers rapidly because its isolated silicon-oxygen tetrahedra are held together by _________ ionic bonds to iron and magnesium. weak
The _______ horizon is the uppermost layer of a soil; it consists of organic material O
The _______ horizon is the dark-colored soil horizon that is rich in organic material and forms just below the surface vegetation A
The _____ horizon is the incompletely weathered parent material lying below the B-horizon C
As soils mature, distinct layers called ______ appear. horizons
Under wet and humid tropical conditions the least soluble material is the aluminum oxide called _____. bauxite
A soil formed entirely through the weathering of basalt would not contain sand-sized grains of __. quartz
Plants and burrowing organisms contribute to soil development by __. All of the answers are correct.
Created by: Thomas.Siu