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Phy 11,12,13

Adjustment refers to any effort to cope with stress
Stress is the term used to describe the state of psychological tension or strain
Stressor Any environmental demand that creates a state of tension or threat (stress) that requires change or adaption is called a
Pressure is a feeling that one must speed up, intensify, or change the direction of one’s behavior or live up to a higher standard of performance
Frustration When a person is prevented from reaching a goal, is the feeling that typically occurs.
Conflict occurs when a person experiences the simultaneous existence of incompatible demands, opportunities, needs, or goals.
Approach/Approach According to Lewin, we are experiencing an conflict when we are forced to make a choice between two appealing possibilities, neither of which has any negative qualities.
Hassles Much stress is generated by everydaylife’s petty annoyances, irritations, and frustrations.
Avoidace/Approach An conflict occurs when we face a choice between two undesirable possibilities, neither of which has any positive qualities.
Approach/Avoidance When we are simultaneously attracted to and repelled by the same goal, we are facing an conflict
Confrontation When a person acknowledges a stressful situation directly and attempts to find a solution to the problem or to attain the difficult goal, that person is engaging in
Compromise One of the most effective coping strategies is in which one decides on a more realistic solution or goal when an ideal one is not practical. In effect, we settle for less than what we sought.
Withdrawl When compromise is not possible, and confrontation will be self-defeating, may be the most effective way of coping with stress.
Defense Mechanisms The often unconscious distortions of a person’s perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety are called
Denial A psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality is called
Repression is occurring when we exclude uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and desires from consciousness.
Projection When one directs one’s own repressed motives, feelings or wishes onto others, one is exhibiting
Regression If in response to being bullied by another fourth-grader, a child starts to wet his/her bed, the bedwetting may be the product of the defense mechanism called
Reaction Formation When we express exaggerated feelings or ideas that are the opposite of how we really feel or think, we are using the defense mechanism.
Displacement is the redirection of repressed motives and emotions from their original object(s) to substitute object(s).
Health Psychology is a subfield of psychology concerned with the relationship between psychological factors and physical health and illness
General Adaptation Syndrome The three stages of the body’s physiological reaction to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustion is called the or GAS.
Type A personality is a person who is ambitious, time conscious, extremely hardworking, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger as well as being easily annoyed
Type B personality is a person who is relaxed and laid-back, less driven and competitive than Type A, and slow to anger.
Type D People who are or Distressed Personality, characterized by depression, negative emotions, and social inhibition, are linked with heart disease because of the excessive amounts of the heart damaging chemical cortisol that they produce
Phychoeuroimmunology is the study of the interaction between stress and the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems.
Altruism Reaching out and giving to others because this brings you pleasure, a behavior called is an effective way to reduce stress
Posttramatic Stress Disorder A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems, lasting for more than one month is known as
Posttramatic Growth is positive growth that may follow an extremely stressful event.
Biological Model holds that abnormal behavior is caused by physiological malfunction, especially of the brain.
Phychoanalytic Modle originating with Freud holds that abnormal behavior is a symbolic expression of unconscious conflicts that generally can be traced to childhood
Cognitive-Behavioral Model states that psychological disorders arise when people learn maladaptive ways of thinking and acting.
Diathesis-Stress Model psychological disorders develop when a biological predisposition is triggered by stressful circumstances
Diathesis is a biological predisposition.
Systems Approach contends psychological disorders are “lifestyle diseases” arising from a combination of biological risk factors, psychological stresses, and societal pressures.
Insanity should be understood as a legal term, not a psychological one, and it is typically applied to defendants who were mentally disturbed when they committed their offense.
DMS-IV-TR The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has issued a manual, the abbreviated title of which is that describes and classifies the various kinds of psychological disorders.
Mood Disorders Most people have a wide emotional range, but in some people with this range is greatly restricted.
Deppresion The most common mood disorder is in which a person feels overwhelmed with sadness, loses interest in activities, and displays such other symptoms as excessive guilt, feelings of worthlessness, insomnia, and loss of appetite
Major Depressive Disorder is an episode of intense sadness that may last for several months; in contrast,
Dythymia involves less intense sadness but persists with little relief for a period of 2 years or more.
Mania People suffering from become euphoric (“high”), extremely active, excessively talkative, and easily distracted.
Bipolar disorder A mood disorder in which both mania and depression are alternately present and are sometimes interrupted by periods of normal mood is known as
Cognitive Distortions A psychological factor related to depression is which are illogical and maladaptive responses to early life events that lead to feelings of incompetence and unworthiness.
Anxiety Disorder Normal fear is caused by something identifiable and the fear subsides with time, but with either the person doesn’t know the source of the fear or the anxiety is inappropriate to the circumstances.
Specific Phobia is an intense, paralyzing fear of something that it is unreasonable to fear so excessively.
Soaial Phobia is excessive, inappropriate fear connected with social situations or performances in front of other people.
Agoraphobia is a debilitating anxiety disorder that involves multiple, intense fears such as the fear of being alone, of being in public places, or of other situations involving separation from a source of security.
Panic Disorder is characterized by recurring sudden, unpredictable, and overwhelming experiences of intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause.
Generilized anxiety disorder is defined by prolonged vague, but intense fears that, unlike phobias, are not attached to any particular object or circumstance.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder involves either involuntary thoughts that recur despite the person’s attempt to stop them or compulsive rituals that a person feels compelled to perform.
Psychosomatic disoders are illnesses that have a valid physical basis, but are largely caused by psychological factors such as excessive stress and anxiety.
Somatoform disorders are characterized by physical symptoms without any identifiable physical cause.
Conversion disorders There are various forms of somatoform disorders. One of the more dramatic forms of these disorders are that involve complaints of paralysis, blindness, deafness, or other significant conditions, but no physical causes exist.
Body dysmorphic disorders A recently-identified form of somatoform disorder isin which a person becomes so preoccupied with his/her imagined ugliness that normal life is not possible.
dissociative disorders some part of a person’s personality or memory is separated from the rest.
dissociative identity disoder commonly known as multiple personality disorder – several distinct personalities emerge at different times
Sexual dysfunction is the loss or impairment of the ability to function effectively during sex.
Sexual disire, orgasmic disorders involve a lack of interest in or an active aversion to sex, while people with _______________ _______________ experience both desire and arousal but are unable to reach orgasm.
Pharaphillials involve the use of unconventional sex objects or situations to obtain sexual arousal.
Voyeurisms (desire to watch others having sexual relations),
Frotteurism (achieving sexual arousal through contact with a nonconsenting person in public),
Transvestic fetishism (obtaining sexual gratification by wearing the clothes of the opposite sex).
sexual sadism Obtaining sexual satisfaction from humiliating or harming a sex partner is called
Sexual Masochism while the inability to enjoy sex without experiencing emotional or physical pain is called
Pedophilia the engaging in sexual relations with children.
Gender-identity disorders involve the desire to become, or the insistence that one really is, a member of the other sex.
Personality disorders are enduring, inflexible, and maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving that are so exaggerated and rigid that they cause serious inner distress or conflicts with others.
Schizoid personality disoder lack the ability or desire to form social relationships and have no warm feelings for other people.
paranoid personality disorder are inappropriately suspicious, hypersensitive, and argumentative.
dependent personality disorder is characterized by the inability to think or act independently
Avoidant personality disorder characterized by timidity and social anxiety that lead to isolation
narcissistic personality disorder have a highly overblown sense of self-importance, whereas those with
bordeline personality disorder show much instability in self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships
Antisocial personality disorder chronically lie, steal, and cheat with little or no remorse
schisophrenic disoders Dramatic disruptions in thought and communication, inappropriate emotions, and bizarre behavior that lasts for years are symptomatic of
phychotic (out of touch with reality),
hallucinations (false sensory perceptions)
delusions (false beliefs about reality)
catatonic schizophrenia (characterized by mute immobility) and
Paranoid schizophrenia (characterized by extreme suspiciousness related to complex deulsions).
attention deficit disorder ADHD Children with are highly distractible, often fidgety and impulsive, and almost constantly in motion.
Phychostimulants Treatment of ADHD often involves prescriptions for because they increase the ability of the child to focus attention on task at hand.
Autistic disorder is characterized by a failure to form normal social attachments, by severe speech impairment, and by strange motor behaviors.
Asperger syndrome Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is used to describe individuals with symptoms that are similar to those seen in autistic disorder, but may be less severe, as is the case in
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological techniques to treat personality and behavior disorders.
Insight therapies share a common goals of providing people with better awareness and understanding of their feelings, motivations, and actions in the hope that this will help them to adjust.
Phychoanalysis is a psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud that is designed to bring hidden feelings and motives to conscious awareness so that the person can deal with them more effectively.
Free association An important aspect of the psychotherapy developed by Freud was a process in which the client discloses whatever thoughts or fantasies come to mind without inhibition.
Transferenced As clients continue to confide personal desires and fantasies to their therapists, they begin to feel toward their therapists the same kinds of feelings that they held toward childhood authority figures, a process known as
Insight As therapy progresses, the analyst takes a more active interpretive role, with the goal being to help the client gain they become aware of what was formerly outside of their awareness.
Client-centered Carl Rogers developed a form of therapy known as therapy that called for unconditional positive regard of the client by the therapist with the goal of helping the client become fully functioning.
Gestalt therapy is a form of an insight therapy that emphasizes the wholeness of the personality and attempts to reawaken people to their emotions and sensations in the present.
Short-term phychodyamic A contemporary insight therapy known as therapy involves a limited course of treatment and is oriented toward current life situations rather than early childhood events
Behavior therapies are based on the belief that all behavior is learned and that people can be taught more satisfying ways of behaving.
Sytematic desensitization behavior therapy for reducing a person’s fear and anxiety by gradually associating relaxation with stimuli that have been causing fear and anxiety is called
Flooding A harsh but effective method of desensitization called involves full-intensity exposure to a feared stimulus for a prolonged period of time
Aversive conditioning the goal is to eliminate undesirable behavior by associating it with pain and discomfort.
behavior contracting is a form of operant conditioning therapy in which the client and therapist set behavioral goals and agree on reinforcements that the client will receive on reaching those goals.
Token economy School and hospitals can establish a where people are rewarded with tokens or points for appropriate behaviors that can be exchanged for desired items and privileges.
modeling a person can learn desired behaviors by watching others perform them.
cognitive therapies emphasize changing clients’ perceptions of their life situation as a way of modifying their behaviors
stress-inoculstion therapy Teaching a client to suppress negative, anxiety-evoking thoughts and replace them with positive, “coping” thoughts, is an important element of
Rational-emotive therapy A type of cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellisis based on the idea that emotional problems derive from a set of irrationas and self-defeating beliefs that people hold about themselves and the world, and it is the therapist’s job to challenge such
Cognative therapy developed by Aaron Beck, tries to help people who are engaging in inappropriately self-critical patterns of thought to instead think more objectively and positively about themselves and their life situations.
Group therapy The type of psychotherapy in which clients meet regularly to interact and help one another achieve insight into their feelings and behavior is called
family therapy is a form of group therapy that sees the family as at least partly responsible for the individual’s problems and that seeks to change all family members’ behaviors to the benefit of the family unit as well as the troubled individual
couple therapy is a form of group therapy that concentrates on improving patterns of communication and interaction between partners
self-help groups Owing to the high cost of private psychotherapy, low-cost _______________-_______________ _______________, in which people who share a common problem gather and provide mutual support, have become increasingly popular
ececticism The current trend in psychotherapy is toward _______________, an approach that recognizes the value of a broad treatment package over a rigid commitment to one particular form of therapy.
biological treatments are a group of approaches (including medication, ECT, and psychosurgery) that are sometimes used to treat psychological disorders in conjunction with, or instead of, psychotherapy.
antipsychotic drugs Drugs that reduce symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions are called _______________ _______________ and are valuable in treating severe psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia.
antidepressants drugs Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors), tricyclics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are all forms of
electroconvulsive therapy is a biological therapy in which a mild electrical current is passed through the brain for a short period; this therapy is used for cases of severe depression that do not respond to other forms of treatment.
psychosurgery A rare biological therapy, is brain surgery performed to change a person’s behavior and emotional state.
deinstitutionalization is a policy of treating people with severe psychological disorders in the larger community or in small residential centers rather than in large public hospitals.
primary prevention is a form of prevention that consists of improving the social environment through assistance to parents, education, and family planning.
Secondary prevention Programs designed to identify groups that are at high risk for mental disorders and to detect and treat maladaptive behaviors are examples of
Tertiary prevention involves helping hospitalized patients with the challenges they face as they are discharged and must return to the community; this form of prevention also includes community education.
Created by: kaylak7