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Microorganisms that have a prokaryotic cell structure include bacteria and archaea
The individual who finally disproved the idea of spontaneous generation once and for all was Louis Pasteur
All of the following groups of microorganisms contain cells that have cell walls except protozoa
Which of the following is false concerning viruses They contain cilia for motility
Which of the following is a properly formatted scientific name? Clostridium difficile
Which of the following ways materials move across a membrane requires an input of energy, usually in the form of ATP? active transport
Although it occurs in plants and algea, photosynthesis has never been observed in bacteria False
It is important to study microbiology because most bacteria are pathogenic and are therefore harmful to humans false
which of the following do microorganisms produce? all of the above.. cheese, antibiotics, industrial chemicals, sauerkraut
which of the following groups of microorganisms contain cells that have organelles? both B and C, fungi and protist
reactions in which larger molecules are assembled from smaller molecules are anabolic
the synthesis of ATP using energy stored in the proton motive force is called oxidative phosphorylation
eukaryotic microorganisms include fungi and protists
a cell with a curved rod morphology would be considered a vibrio
apoenzymes are composed of proteins
How many molecules of CO2 are ultimately produced from each molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration? 6
Which of the following is true of microorganisms? some produce fuels for human energy needs
Bacterial capsules play a role in each of the following except motility
Each turn of the Krebs cycle (beginning with acetyl-CoA) produces how many molecules of NADH 3
Each turn of the Krebs cycle produces how many molecules of FADH2 1
The Latinized system of naming and classifying microorganisms was devised by Carolus Linnaeus
The movement of a cell toward or away from a stimulus is called taxis
Microorganisms that produce beneficial growth factors, such a folic acid and vitamin K, are part of the normal microbiota
Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering their _______ energy activation
Which of the following are nonliving pathogens viruses
What is the net gain of ATP from glycolysis 2
Spherical cells arranged in chains are called streptococci
spirochetes move in a corkscrew motion using specialized flagella anchored to the sides of the cells called axial filaments
teh cell wall of gram-negative bacteria differs from that of gram-positive bacteria in that the gram-negative cell wall has an outer membrane
A total of ______ molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis 2
Proteins that have been subjected to extreme temperatures of pH often become ___________ and lose their functionality denatured
The outermost layer that provides structural strength and protects cells from osmotic lysis is the cell wall
Which of the following reproduce by binary fission archaea
During cellular respiration, molecules of pyruvic acid are converted to __________ which then enters the Krebs cycle acetyl-CoA
The basic structure of peptidoglycan is polysaccharides cross-linked by polypeptides
The study of how microorganisms interact and cycle nutrients in the environment is microbial ecology
Which of the following is a group of microorganisms belonging to the animal kingdom helminths
Aerobic respiration in prokaryotes yields a net total of _______ molecules of ATP per glucose 38
The waxy consistency of the cell wall of acid-fast bacteria is due to the presence of lipids called Mycolic acids
The idea that living organisms arise from pre-existing life is know as biogenesis
During cellular respiration, molecules of NADH and FADH2 are oxidized back to NAD+ and FAD by components of the electron transport chain
The plasma membrane of most cells is composed of a _______ bilayer phospholipid
Which of the following scientist showed that microorganisms are responsible for fermentations? Louis Pasteur
During lactic acid fermentation, a net gain of _____ molecules of ATP is obtained for each molecule of glucose. 2
Each turn of the Krebs cycle producels ____ molecule(s) of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation 4
The movement of molecules directly through a membrane from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration is simple diffusion
The protection from a disease that a vaccine provides is called immunity
During respiration, each molecule of glucose produces a total of _____ molecules of NADH from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle 10
In general, while eukaryotes have multiple paired chromosomes, prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome true
Photosynthetic mircoorganisms inclue cyanobacteria and fungi false
When lysozyme breaks down a bacterial cell wall, it creates a protoplast that is susceptible to osmotic lysis true
bacteria reproduce by forming endospores false
protein synthesis is catalyzed by ribosomes, which consist of large and small subunits true
feedback inhibition depends on the presence of an enzyme with a noncompetitive (allosteric) binding site in a metabolic pathway true
similar to plants, algea are microorganisms that produce oxygen (O2) during photosynthesis true
an oxidation reaction is always accompanied by a chemical reduction true
during fermentation, ATP is synthesized only by a substrate-level phosphorylation true
Liquids are sterilized in a heating process called pasteurization flase
Gram-negative bacteria contain an endotoxin in their cell wall called lipid A True
A holoenzyme is an apoenxyme with its corresponding cofactor attached True
The fungi are a group of microorganisms that include both unicellular and multicellular forms true
In eukaryotes, the Krebs cycle occurs in the cytoplasm False
A cell would be in danger of bursting in a hypertonic environment False
Early proponent of hand washing in clinical practice Ignaz Semmelweis
Defeated spontaneous generation using S-Shaped flasks Louis Pasteur
He was the first to microscopically observe bacteria Antonia van Leeuwenhoek
developed a method to determine causative agents of disease Robert Koch
Reported that living organisms are composed of cells Robert Hooke
In relation to microorganisms, growth is defined as an increase in cell numbers
Which of the following methods provides an indirect measurements of microbial growth turbidity
Bacteria that are carrying out nitrogen fixation are using _________ as a nitrogen source N2
Phosphorus is a nutrient require for synthesis of all of the above... DNA, cell membranes, ATP
If you observe that a species of bacteria grows rapidly in the presence of O2 and more slowly in the complete absence of O2, it is most likely a(n) facultative aerobe
A growth medium consisting of ingredients that include extracts and protein digests would be complex
An organism that grows optimally at 37C would be a mesophile
WHich of the following could be properly used as an antiseptic isoprophyl alcohol
Phenolic compounds kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms primarily by disrupting the structural integrity of membranes
Which of the following inhibits but does not kill microorganisms a bacteriostatic agents
An organism that grows only in the complete absence of O2 would probably be a(n) strict anerobe
Which of the following process results in the complete elimination of all viable microorganisms and viruses sterilization
In all cells, genes are composed of DNA
The codon UAA on a mRNA molecule results in the termination of translation
Which of the following methods would provide the most accurate measurement of the number of living cells/ml in a culture serial dilution plate counts
In which of the following growth phases of a culture does population growth cease stationary
WHich of the following would most likely be used to sterilize a gas HEPA filters
which of the following environmental factors influences growth all of the above influence growth: pH, Oxygen (O2), moisture and nutrient content, osmotic pressure
Which of the following cannot be a product of transcription a new strand of DNA
Ionizing radiation is a potent mutagen because it produces free radical ions in cells that destroy nucleic acids and proteins
the time between inoculation of a culture medium and the beginning of growth is called the lag phase
If a single growing cell divides every 20 minutes, how many cells will be present in a colony derived from this cell after 3 hours? 512
A species of bacteria isolated from glacial ice was found to grow optiomally at 4C. This organism is best described as a psychrophile
Transcription and translation of a gene can occur simultaneously in prokaryotic cells
In a DNA double helix, adenine forms a complementary base pair with _____. while cytosine forms a complementary base pair with _______ thymine/guanine
If RNA polymerase adds a uracil nucleotide to a growing strand of RNA during transcription, what nucleotide base would you expect to be on the DNA template (i.e., the gene) at that site? adenine
which of the following statements is flase concerning DNA replication in bacteria DNA ligase breaks hydrogen bonds between strands to form replication forks
Which of the following groups of elements are required in especially large amounts by cells carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus
The energy that powers DNA replication comes from hydrolysis of phosphates from incoming nulceoside triphosphates
THe enzyme that allows some bacteria to use N2 as a source of nitrogen is nitrogenase
the termination of transcription is signaled by RNA polymerase encountering the terminator of a gene
The enzyme that allows some bacteria to use N2 as a source of nitrogen is nitrogenase
The termination of transcription is signaled by RNA polymerase encountering the terminator of a gene
The enxyme that adds nucleotides to the newly synthesized, daughter DNA strand during replication is DNA polymerase
During the elogation phase of translation charged tRNA molecules bind to the ribosome at the A site
DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation can be cut ou and repaired by nucleotide excision
In a tube of culture medium containing an oxygen gradient, you observe growth only on the surgace of the medium. These bacteria would therefore be Obligate aerobes
Which of the following is an example of a codon that could be found on a molecule of MRNA UCA
Which of the following is a disinfectant that should never be used on living tissue phenol
Which of the following is false concerning ribosomes The interact directly with genes to produce a protein
In which of the following environments would you expect to find a halophile Dead Sea
Which of the following classes of antimicrobial agents would most likely be used as preservatives in foods organic acids
which of the following destroys DNA by breaking phosphodiester bonds ionizing radiation
a bacterium growing in a freshwater Antarctic lake that has a very high pH would be both alkaliphilic and psychrophilic
Promoters are specific sequence of ______ that are recoginized by _____ DNA / RNA polymerase
Which of the following is most resistant to antimicrobial chemicals endospores
The first amino acid to be incorporated into a newly synthesized protein is always methionine
which of the following molecules contains an anticodon tRNA
Ultraviolet radiation harms cells by causing the formation of thymine dimers
Which of the following correctly describes the effect of a missense mutation a different amino acide will be substituted for the original
which of the following is false regarding DNA in living cells it consists of a double helix of two covalently bonded DNA strands
Which of the following mutates DNA by mimiking the structure of nucleotide bases nucleoside analogs
the fastest growth of a bacterial culture occurs during the lag phase flase
molecules of TRNA and rRNA play bital roles in protein synthesis but are not themselves thranslated into proteins true
the "Backbone" of a strand of DNA consists of alternating deoxyribose sugars and phosphate molecules true
according the the genetic code, most amino acids are encoded by only a single codon flase
multiple ribosomes are often translate a single mRNA molecule simultaneously true
mutations can cause permanent genetic changes in an organism true
DNA replication on the leading strand is carried out discontinuously in small sections called Okazaki fragments False
Most bacteria that cause disease in humans are thermophilic flase
tRNA molecules bound to the E site of the ribosome are uncharged True
a frameshift mutation results from either the insertion or deletion of a base pair from a molecule of DNA true
a biosafety level 2 laboratory requires that all laboratory technicians wear airtight safety suits with respirators false
foods with high levels of salt and or sugar inhibit growth of microorganisms by causing plasmolysis of contaminating cells true
three types of RNA are necessary for the synthesis of proteins true
the agar added to some growth media is an excellent source of amino acids for growing cells false
some microorganisms grow best in temperatures exceeding that of boiling water (100C) true
the RNA synthesizing enxyme active during transcription RNA polymerase
synthesizes phosphodiester bons in DNA DNA ligase
a DNA - synthesizing enzyme active during replication DNA polymerase
removes hydrogen bonds between two strands of DNA Helicase
Synthesizes short RNA fragments during DNA replication Primase
the genome of a virus is composed of either DNA or RNA
on a petri dish, cleared zones due to lysis of bacterial cells by bacterial cells by bacteriophages are called plaques
in which of the following does a bacteriophage incorporate its genes into the host chromosome the lysogenic cycle
Symptoms of a disease differ from signs of a disease in that symptoms are changes in body function felt by the patient
which of the following is not used to cultivate viruses sterile cluture media
which of the following is an example of a disease caused by a prion mad cow disease
which of the following statements is true about symbiotic relationships in parastitsm, one organism benefits at the expense of the other
a bite from an infected mosquito is an example of ____ transmission vector
most nosocomial infections are caused by species of staphylococcus
once inside a host cell, an animal virus separates its nucleic acid from the capsid; this is called uncoating
Infection by an oncogenic virus can trigger uncontroled division of host cells, this can lead to the development of a mass of tissue called a(n) tumor
Which of the following classifications of dieases is spread easily from one host to another contagious disease
the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and toddlers is rotavirus
an enzyme that is not found in healthy cells but is essential to the replication of retroviruses is reverse transcriptase
which of the following types of infections is limited to a relatively small area of the body local infection
which of the following is an innate immune response the production of B and T memory cells
which of the following is an adaptive immune response the activation and differentiation of a TH cell
Which of the following is not considered a predisposing factor for disease all of the above are predisposing factors for disease: age, gender, climate, nutrition
A fly carrying contaminated feces on its feet and legs lands on your hamburger, and you take a bite and consequently become ill from E.Coli infection. this is an example of __________ transmission of disease mechanical
all of the following are phagocytic cells except Tc Cells
All of the following are antigen-presenting cells (APC's) except eosinophils
Inanimate objects that can spread disease are called antigens
which of the following contributes to the incidence of nosocomial infections all of the above contribute: direct contact with the patient by hospital staff, presence of an infectious agent, immune compromised patients
The site on an antigen to which an antibody binds is called the epitope (antigenic determinant)
Which of the following is not considered a first line of defense to infection inflammation
which of the following immune cells has the primary function of killing parasitic worms (helminths)? eosinophils
the causative agent of warts in humans is a tumorigenic DNA virus called human papillomavirus
Which of the following cleeular organelles plays a key role in phagocytosis lysosome
What is present on the surface of a phagocyte that allows recognition and binding of a microorganism Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
Which of the following does not occur from activation of the complement system antibody production
The function of the ciliary escalator is to prevent microorganisms from entering the lower respiratory tract
The complement system cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway beginning with the splitting and activation of C3
Which of the following is a vector of disease transmission a mosquito harboring West Nile virus
WHich class of antibodies crosses the placenta and is received byt the fetus IgG
The study of disease is called pathology
which of the following recognized antigens presented on MHC class II TH Cells
which of the following recognizes and destroys virus-infected cells by binding to antigen presented on MHC class I TC cells (CTLs)
The causative agent of all spongiform encephalopathies is a(n) an infectious protein
Because _____________ can be transferred from mother to child during birth, infected mothers should have C-section deliveries hepatitis B virus
Which mechanism of complement activation requires antibodies bound to antigen classical pathway
Characteristics of inflammation include all but which of the following Vasoconstriction
The part of the brain that is responsible for initiating fever in response to infection is the hypothalamus
when the common cold is transmitted by an uncovered sneeze, it is an example of droplet transmission
The person likely to be most interested in the prevalence of yellow fever in Central America would be a(n) epidemiologist
If an outbreak of influenza A in North America was unable to be contained and consequently spread to Australia, Europe, and Asia through travelers, the incident would best be described as a pandemic
In a population where 90% of the individuals are immune to a disease, the remaining 10% of the population is unlikely to acquire the disease despite being susceptible to it. This is a phenomenon called herd immunity
Dimer that is present in body secretions, such as breast milk and mucus IgA
Crosses the placenta and is passed from mother to fetus IgG
Found on mast cells and targets parasitic worms for destruction IgE
Exists as a pentamer in Blood serum and agglutinates microorganisms IgM
Found on B cells and initiates an immune response by an unknown mechanism IgD
Protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus capsid
Protein subunits that make up the viral protein coat capsomere
requires a host cell to live and reproduce obligate intracellular parasite
spectrum of host cells that a particular virus can infect host range
a complete, assembled virus that has exited a host cell virion
a phagocyte that is an antigen-presenting cell dendritic cell
destroys virus-infected and cancer cells by cytolysis NK cell
produce histamine to trigger inflammation basophil
a quick-responding and numerous phagocytic cell neutrophil
produces and secretes antibodies plasma cell
antibodies block the ability of a pathogen/toxin to harm host cells neutralization
clumping of antigens due to antibody binding agglutination
proliferation of B cells that bind to and recognize a specific antigen clonal selection
destruction of B cells that recognize self antigens clonal deletion
enhanced phagocytosis due to antigen coated with antibodies/C3b opsonization
what is the name of the enzyme RNA virus use to make a complimentary strand of RNA from an RNA template RNA replicase
Worldwide, the transmission of rabies to humans usually occurs through dog bites
which of the following bacteria is a foodborne pathogen that reproduces inside phagocytes and can be transmitted across the placenta to a fetus, often causing spontaneous abortion listeria monocytogenes (listeriosis)
what is the leading cause of blindness worldwide trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Which of the following is a potent neurotoxin that blocks the relaxation pathway in muscles, thereby causing spastic paralysis? tetanospasmin
Infection by Pediculus humanus capitis causes pediculosis, a condition that is most effectively treated with Topical insecticides
People who do not typically wear shoes are most susceptible to the tropical skin infection _________ which is caused by soil fungi that enter the dermis through small breaks in the skin madura foot
In general, over the past 30 years, cases of poliomyelitis have _____ worldwide decreased
By which mechanism does the antiviral drug acyclovir work it acts as a nucleoside analog
B-lactam antibiotics are produced naturally by fungi
which of the following are narrow-spectrum antibiotics that specifically inhibit mycobacteria isoniazids
What disease caused by a protozoan is transmitted to humans through the tsetse fly African Tryponosomiasis
Created by: 100001280191644