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Hesi Prep

medication and disease process information

Topical medication that is teratogenic Isotretinoin (Accutane)
foods that can inhibit thyroid secretion peaches, pears, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, peas, radishes, spinach, turnips
Hyperparathyroidism results in high serum calcium level and bone demineralization
Hypoparathyroidism results in low serum calcium level, which increases neuromuscular excitability
Take Thyroid medication in the morning on an empty stomach
Steroids can cause increase in glucose and mask the signs of infection
use of hypoglycemic medications together with ßeta blockers can masks signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
used to treat insulin-induced hypoglycemia Glucagon
the only type of insulin that may be administered intravenously. Regular insulin
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists and Proton pump inhibitors suppress the secretion of gastric acid, alleviate symptoms of heartburn, help prevent complications of peptic ulcer disease
Aluminum preparations and sodium bicarbonate are used with caution in hypertension and heart failure because they contain a significant amount of sodium.
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists are used with caution impaired renal or hepatic function.
Prokinetic agents such metoclopramide (Reglan) contraindicated in clients with mechanical obstruction, perforation, or GI hemorrhage and may cause a parkinsonian reaction.
patient receiving medication for hepatic encephalopathy. Monitor the ammonia level
Bronchodilators are contraindicated in peptic ulcer disease, severe cardiac disease or cardiac dysrhythmias, hyperthyroidism, and uncontrolled seizure disorders.
The therapeutic range of serum theophylline level 10 to 20 mcg/mL
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) should be avoided in clients with narrow-angle glaucoma.
Green leafy vegetables and foods high in vitamin K Should be avoided while taking anticoagulants
activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)in anticoagulant therapy maintained at 1.5 to 2.5 times normal.
The antidote to heparin protamine sulfate.
Thrombolytic Medications These drugs activate plasminogen, which generates plasmin, the enzyme that dissolves clots.
The antidote to Thrombolytic Medications aminocaproic acid (Amicar)
Hold Digoxin Apical heart rate less than 60, potaium less than 3.5, digoxin level higher that 2.0
A persistent dry cough is a common complaint patients taking ACE inhibitors
Cholinergics increase bladder tone and function and to treat nonobstructive urine retention and neurogenic bladder
Anticholinergic Antispasmodics used to treat overactive bladder (urge incontinence)
signs of toxicity in anticholinergics hypotension or hypertension, confusion, tachycardia, flushed or red face, signs of respiratory depression, nervousness, restlessness, hallucinations, and irritability.
phenazopyridine hydrochloride (Pyridium). urine will turn red or orange, used to treat pain resulting from urinary tract irritation or infection.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors should not be used in patients who are allergic to sulfonamides.
myasthenia gravis muscle weakness
The Tensilon test is used to diagnose cholinergic crisis (overdose with anticholinesterase) or myasthenic crisis (undermedication).
Signs of Cholinergic Crisis GI disturbances, Increased salivation and tearing, increased bronchial secretions, Sweating, Miosis, Hypertension
Side Effects of Anticonvulsant Medication Gingival hyperplasia
Absorption of anticonvulsants is decreased with the use of milk products, antacids, calcium preparations, and antineoplastic medications.
biosphosphonates must be administered in the morning, before the client eats or drinks, with a full glass of water; the client must then remain sitting or standing for at least 30 to 60 minutes
patients taking an MAOI should avoid thiamine rich foods
thiamine rich foods are Avocados, Bananas, Beef or chicken liver, Beer, Chianti wine, Caffeine, Cheese, Dried, cured, fermented, smoked, or aged fish, Fermented, smoked, or aged meat, Figs, Raisins, soups with protein extract, Soy sauce, yeast extract
what is used to treat hypertensive crisis. Intravenous phentolamine
Serotonin syndrome signs and symptoms agitation, confusion, anxiety, hallucinations, hyperreflexia, excessive sweating, tremor, fever
The therapeutic serum level of lithium is 0.6 to 1.2 mEq/L
used to treat benzodiazepine toxicity. IV flumazenil (Romazicon)
Tacrine (Cognex) hepatotoxicity is an adverse effect, and liver function parameters must be monitored.
Ergot alkaloids not administered before the delivery of the placenta.
Kernig sign, inability to straiten leg with hip and knee flexed
Brudzinski sign involentary flexion of hip and knee when neck is passively flexed
Addison disease hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids).
Cushing syndrome hypersecretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex.
Graves disease hyperthyroidism
Hypoparathyroidism Hypocalcemia Hyperphosphatemia-numbness, muscle craps, spasm
Hyperparathyroidism Hypercalcemia Hypophosphatemia, muscle weaknes, fatigue, skeletal pain
cullen sign blue discoloration in umbilical area
Turner sign gray blue discoloration of flanks
Raynaud Disease Vasospasm of the arterioles and arteries of the arms and legs causes constriction of the cutaneous vessels.
normal GFR 125ml/min
Multiple Sclerosis chronic, progressive degenerative disease affects the myelin sheath and the conduction pathway of the central nervous system.
Myasthenia Gravis characterized by marked weakness and abnormal fatigue of the voluntary muscles
Guillain-Barré Syndrome acute infectious neuronitis of the cranial and peripheral nerves is characterized by varying degrees of motor weakness and paralysis.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(Lou Gehrig disease) progressive degenerative disease that affects the motor system.muscle weakness and atrophy develop, with resulting flaccid quadriplegia; eventually the respiratory muscles are affected, leading to respiratory compromise, pneumonia, and death.
normal chloride range 98-107
normal aPTT range 20-36 seconds
normal PT range 9.5-11.8
normal INR range 1.0-1.3
normal hemoglobin range 14-16.5
normal hematacrit level 38-53%
normal creatinine levels 0.6-1.3
normal BUN range 8-25
normal calcium range 8.6-10
normal phosphorous range 2.7-4.5
normal magnesium range 1.6-2.6
Created by: Wzamen