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What is the branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur through life developmental
the unfolding of biologically predetermined patterns of behavior maturation
what refers to hereditary factors nature
what referes to environmental influences nurture
the issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior nature-nurture issue
compares ppl of different ages at the same point in time cross-sectional research
a research metho that investigates behavior as the participants age longitudinal research
a research method that combines cross sectional & longitudinal by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time sequential research
rod shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information chromosomes
the parts of chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted genes
the new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm zygote
a developed zygote that has a heart, a brain and other organs embryo
a developing individual from eight weeks after conception until birth fetus
the point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely age of viability
the time when organisms are particular susceptiable to certain kinds of stimuli sensitive/critical period
environmental agents such as a drug, chemical, or virus or other factor that produce birth defects teratogens
automatic involuntary responses to incoming stimuli reflexes
the positive emotional bond that develps between a child and a particular individual attachment
this consists of a sequence of events involving a child and his or her mother and is used to measure attachment ainsworth strange situation
these type of children employ the mother as a kind of home base, explore freely but return to the mother occasionally securely attached
these children do not cry when the mother leaves and they seem to avoid her when she returns avoidant
these children display anxiety before they are seperated and are upset when the mother leaves but they may show ambivalent reactions to her return ambivalent
these children show inconsistent often contradictory behavior to the mother leaving and returning disorganized-disoriented
parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioniong obedience from their children authoritarian
these parents give their children relaxed or inconsistant direction and alothough they are warm require little of them permissive
these parents are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them authoritative
these parents show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached uninvolved
the basic innate disposition that emerges early in life temperament
development of individuals interactions and understand of each other and of their knowledge and understanding themselves as members of society psychosocial development
according to erikson the 1st stage of psychosocial development occuring from birth to age 1.5 yr when infants develop feelings of trust or lack of trust trust-vs-mistrust stage
according to erikson the period during which toddlers age 1.5-3 yr develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged, shame and self doubt if they are restricted autonomy-vs-shame and doubt stage
according to erikson, the period during which children age 3-6 experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action initiative-vs-guilt stage
the process by which a childs understand of the world changes as a function of age and experience cognitive development
according to paiget, the stage from birth to 2 yr when a child has little competence in representing the environment by using images, languages, or other symbols sensorimotor stage
the awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight object permanence
piagets idea, the stage from 2-7 yr when development of language and use of symbols occur preoperational stage
paiget idea, from 7-12 yr, loss of egocentric thinking, logical thought devlops, but difficult understand abstranct hypothetical questions occurs, beginning marked by understaing of conservation concrete operational stage
amount, volume, or length of an object doesnt change when its shape changes conservation
the way in which ppl take in, use, and store infomation information processing
an awareness and understanding of ones own cognitive processes metacognition
the level at which a child can almost but not fully comprehend or perform a task on his or her own zone of proximal development
the third leading cause of death of adolescents in the us suicide
a time of questioning of their lives they are influenced by the idea that life will end and question past accomplishments, generally happens in the early 40's midlife transition
dissatisfaction with life midlife crisis
the study of older adults and aging geronotology
human cells have a built in time limit to their reproduction; after a ceratin time they are no longer able to divide genetic preprogramming theories of aging
mechanical functions of the body stop working efficiently as you age wear and tear theories of aging
information processing skills such as memory, calculations, and analogy solving fluid intelligence
accumulation of information, skills, and strategies learned through experience crystallized intelligence
progressive brain disorder that leads to gradual and irreversiable decline in cognitive abilities alzheimers disease
aging produces a gradual withdrawl from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels disengagement theory of aging
successful aging means maintaining the interest and activites you had during middle age activity theory of aging
process by which people examine and evaluate their lives life review
resist the idea they are dieing denial
angry at ppl in good health around them, at medical professionals, god anger
trying to postpone death bargaining
bargaining will not work "preparatory grief" for their own death depression
made peace with themselves usually unemotional and uncommunicative acceptance
who designed the five stages of dealing with ones own impending death elisabeth kubler-ross
treatment in which a trained professional, a therapist, uses psychological techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth psychotherapy
therapy that relies on drugs and medical procedures to improve psychological functioning biomedical
therapy that seeks to bring unressolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively psychodynamic
fredian psychotherapy in whiich the goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior psychoanalysis
the technique that asks people to say aloud whatever comes to mind, regardless of its apparent irrelevance or senselessness free association
moving beyond the surface description of a dream is known as manifest content
therapits that seek the underlying meaning of dreams to reveal the true unconscious meaning of the dream is called latent content
the inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories, thoughts, or motivations is known as what in freudian theory resistance
in freudian theory the transfer of feelings of love or anger to a psychoanalyst is called transference
treatment approaches that build on the basic processes of learning and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned are called behavioral treatment approaches
a form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undersired behavior by pairing an unpleasant stimulus with undersired behavior is called aversive conditioning
this is a behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety producing stimulus with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety systemic desensitization
a behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted, either suddenly or gradually with a stinulus that they fear exposure
a written agreement that includes behavioral goals the client hopes to achieve, also specifies the positive consequences for reaching the goal contingency contract
the process by which the behavior of other people is modeled to systematically teach people new skills and ways of handeling their fears and anxieties is called observational learning
a form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are regardless of whether it matches their ideal dialectial behavior therapy
treatment approaches that teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves are know as cognitive treatment approaches
a treatment approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think is known as cognitive behavior approach
a form of therapy that attempts to restructure a persons belief system into a more realistic rational and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior rational-emotive behavior therapy
the underlying rationale of this type of therapy is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives, and are essentially responsible for solving their problems humanistic
therapy in which the goal is to reach ones potential for self-actualization is called person centered therapy
expressing acceptance and understanding, reguardless of the feelins and attitudes the client express unconditional positive reguard
when a therapist is understanding of a clients emotinal experiences, but does not necessarily approve of everything that their clients say or do empathy
short-term therapy that focuses on the context of current social relationships is known as interpersonal therapy
jane has entered treatment for substance abuse issue, part of her treatment includes meeting with other ppl who have the same substance abuse issues, this is likely what type of therapy group
recovery without treatment is known as spontaneous remission
where data from a large nujmber of studies are statistically combined to create impressions of the data that is being studied meta-analysis
because no single type of psychotherapy is invariably more effective for every individual, some therapist use what type of approach eclectic
anna has schizophrenia and needs meds to control her symptoms this is most likely what type of therapy drug
drugs used to reduce severe symptoms of disturbance, such as agitation and loss of touch with reality are known as antipsychotic drugs
medications that improve a severely depressed patients mood and feeling of well-being are known as antidepressant drugs
drugs used to treat disorders that prevent manic episodes of bipolar disorder are known as mood stabilizers
drugs that reduce the level of anxiety a person experience, essentially by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of well being antianxiety drugs
a procedure used in the treatment of severe depression, in which an electric current of 70 to 150 volts is briefly administered to a patients head electroconvulsive therapy
a depression treatment in which a precise magnetic pulse is directed to a specific area of the brain is known as transcranial magnetic stimulation
a branch of psychology that focuses on the prevention and minimization of psychological disorders in the community is called community psychology
the transfer of former mental patients from institutions to the community deinstitutionalism
the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others is called social psychology
evaluations of a particular person, behavior, belief or concept attitudes
message interpretation characterized by thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments used to persuade is called central route processing
message interpretation characterized by consideration of the source and related general information, rather than of the message itself is called peripheral route processing
the conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts is called cognitive dissonance
the way people understand and make sense of others and themselves is known as social cognition
sets of cognitions about people and social experiences are called schemas
the process by which an individual organizes information about another person to form an overall impression of that person is called impression formation
the major traits considered in forming immpressions of others are called central traits
the theory of personality that seeks to explain how we decide, on the basis of samples of an individuals behavior, what the specific causes of that persons behavior are known as attribution theory
percieved causes of behavior that are based on environmental facors are called situtational causes of behavior
percieved causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors are called dispositional causes of behavior
a phenomenon in which an initial understanding that a person has positive traits is used to infer other uniformly positive characteristics halo effect
the tendency to think of people as being similar to onself, even when meeting them for the first time assumed similarity bias
the tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) an to attribute failure to factors outside onself self-serving bias
a tendency to over-attribute others' behavior to dispositional causes and the corresponding minimization of the importance of situtational causes fundamental attribution error
the process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others social influence
expectations regarding behavior appropriate to the group norms
a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people conformity
the behaviors that are associated with people in a given position social roles
behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure compliance
the branch of psychology focusing on work and job-related issues, including worker motivation, satisfaction, safety, and productivity inducstrial orginizational psychology
a change in behavior in response to the commands of others obedience
a set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a particular group and its members stereotype
a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members prejudice
behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their emmbership in a particular group discrimination
this test measures prejudice, and permits a more accurate assement of peoples attitudes towards members of different groups the implicit association test (IAT)
a state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another passionate love
the strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved is known as companionate love
the intentional injury of, or harm to, another person aggression
the process of discharging built up agressive energy catharsis
this type of behavior is another way to describe helping behavior presocial
medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties psychophysiological disorders
a theory developed by Hans Selye that suggest that a persons response to a stressor consists of three stages, alarm and mobilization, resistance, and exhaustion general adaptation syndrome
the study of the relationship amoung psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain psychoneuroimmunology
the efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress coping
this occurs when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cant be controlled, this view of the world becomes so ingrained they cease trying to rememdy the aversive circumstances even if they actually can exert some influence on the situtation learned helplessness
a mutual network of caring, interested others is know as social support
the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person is a description of personality
this type of approach to personality assumes that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness psychodynamic
the part of the personality, according to freud, that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelins, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware unconscious
the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality, whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses ID
the id is also known as the pleasure principle
the part of the personality, according to freud, that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world is known as the ego
the ego is also known as the reality principle
according to freudian theory this represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a persons parents, teachers, and other significant individuals superego
according to freudian theory these are conflicts or concerns that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur fixations
a childs sexual interest in his or her opposite sex parent, typically resolved through identification with the same sex parent, from freuds work, is know as odepial conflict
the process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitating that persons behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values is known as identification
according to Jung, this is a common set of ideas, feelings, images, and symbols that we inherit from our ancestors, the whole human race, and even animal ancestors from the distant past collective unconscious
according to jung, there are universal symbols that represent a particular person, object, or experience archetypes
Alfred adler, another neo-freudian, proposed that the primary human motivation is a striving for what in a quest for self improvement and perfection superiority
adler used this term to describe situations in which adults haven't been able to overcome the feelings of inferiority they developed as children, when they were small and limited in their knowledge about the world inferiority complex
a model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality trait theory
these are considered personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations traits
a statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns is called factor analysis
the belief in ones personal capabilities, leads to higher aspirations and greater persistence self efficacy
the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations self-esteem
the basic innate disposition that emerges early in life and encompasses several dimensions including general activity level and mood temperament
according to humanistic theory this is the state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential each in a unique way self actualization
according to humanistic theory, an attitude of acceptance and respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does unconditional positive regard
standard measures devised to assess behavior of objectively, use by psychologists to help people make decisions about their lives and understand more about themselves psychological tests
the measurement consistency of a test, meaning that it yields the same result each time it is administered to a specific person or group reliability
when a test measures what it is supposed to measure validity
standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one persons score on a test with the scores of others who have taken the same test norms
a method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior is know as self report measure
this is a direct measure of an individuals behavior designed to describe characteristics indicative of personality behavioral assessment
the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively is known as intelligence
intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory is known as fluid intelligence
the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that are learned through experience and can be applied in problem solving situations crystalized intelligence
this approach asserts that the way people store material in memory and use the material to solve intellectual tasks provides the most accurate measures of intelligence information processing
according to robert sternberg, this type of intelligence is related to overall success in living practical intelligence
the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions emotional intelligence
the most common cause of mental retardation in newborns, occurring when the mother uses alcohol during pregnancy fetal alcohol syndrome
this results from the presence of an extra chromosomes down syndrome
mental retardation in which no apparent biological defect exists, but there is a history of retardation in the family familial retardation
sarah takes the WAIS-III and finds out that her score is a 145, this means sarah is considered intellectually what according to the result of her test gifted
a test that does not discriminate against members of any minority group is called a what IQ test culture-fair
a measure of the degree to which a characteristic is related to a genetic, inherited factor is known as heritability
behavior that causes people to experience distress and prevents them from functioning in their daily lives is known as abnormal
this perspective suggests that when an individual displays symptoms of abnormal behavior, the fundamental cause will be found through a physical examination of the individual medical
this perspective views the behavior itself as the problem, using the basic principles of learning, these theorists see both normal and abnormal behaviors as responses to various stimuli behavioral
this perspective hold that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regardless of sex and aggression psychoanalytic
this perspective goes beyond only considering external behavior, as in traditional approaches, it assumes that peoples thoughts and beliefs are central to a persons abnormal behavior cognitive
this perspective emphasizes the responsibility people have for their own behavior, even when their behavior is considered abnormal humanistic
this perspective assumes that peoples behavior, both normal and abnormal, is shaped by the kind of family,, group, society, and culture in which they live sociocultral
the classification system that most professionals use to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior is known as the DSM-IV-TR
a feeling of apprehension or tension in reaction to stressful situations anxiety
the occurrence of anxiety without an obvious external cause, affecting daily functioning anxiety disorder
Nick is terrified of spiders, if he sees a picture of a spider he starts to sweat and tremble, he is likely suffering from a phobia involving spiders
this disorder is an anxiety disorder that takes the form of panic attacks lasting from a few seconds to as long as several hours panic
this disorder is the experience of long-term persistent anxiety and worry generalized anxiety
this disorder is characterized by unwanted thoughts or feelings that a perosn must carry out actions against his or her will obsessive compulsive
a persistent, unwanted thought or idea that keeps recurring obsession
an irresistible urge to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable compulsion
this perspective suggests that anxiety is a learned response to stress behavioral
this perspective suggests that anxiety disorders grow out of a persons inappropriate and inaccurate thoughts and beliefs about circumstances in his or her world cognitive
these disorders are psychological difficulties that take on a physical form, but for which there is no medical cause somatoform
a disorder in which people have a constant fear of illness and preoccupation with their health hypochondriasis
a major somatoform disorder that involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or leg conversion disorder
a disorder in which a person displays characteristics of two or more distinct personalities dissociative identity disorder
a disorder in which a significant, selective memory loss occurs dissociative amnesia
these types of disorders are psychological dysfunctions characterized by the separation of different facets of a persons personality that are normally integrated dissociative
a form of amnesia in which the individual leaves home and sometimes assumes a new identity dissociative fugue
disturbances in emotional experience that are strong enough to intrude on everyday living mood disorders
this is a severe form of this disorder and it interferes with concentration, decision making, and sociability major depression
an extended state of intense, wild elation mania
a disorder in which a person alternates between periods of euphoric feelings of mania and periods of depression bipolar disorder
a learned expectation that events in ones life are uncontrollable and that one cant escape from the situation learned helplessness
a class of disorders in which serve distortion of reality occurs schizophrenia
a disorder characterized by a set of inflexible, maladaptive behavior patterns that keep a person from functioning appropriately in society personality disorder
a disorder in which individuals show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others antisocial personality
a personality disturbance characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance narcissistic personality
a considerably more common childhood disorder marked by inattentiveness, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and a great deal of inappropriate activity ADHD
a severe developmental disability that impairs children's ability to communicate and relate to others autism
Created by: chop