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NR 302

Cardiovascular, Peripheral Vascular & Lymphatics

Precordium Clavicle to xiphoid, overlying heart and great vessels.
Mediastinum Heart between the lungs in the mid third of thoracic cage. Includes base and apex.
Layers of the Heart Pericardium: Outer layer. Fibrous & tough. Myocardium: Muscular layer. Pumping. Endocardium: Inner layer. Thin, lines chambers.
Chambers of the Heart 4 Chambers: Upper 2 are rt. & lt. atria. Lower 2 are rt. & lt. ventricles (pump blood to lungs)
Atria Are the receiving chambers of the heart, receiving blood flowing back to the heart. **Reservoirs**
Ventricles Are the chambers that pump blood out of the heart. **Muscular**
Heart Valves Located within the chambers of the heart and are critical to the proper flow of blood through the heart. UNIDIRECTIONAL to prevent backflow.
Atrioventricular Valves Separates atria and ventricles. Includes tricuspid (right side) and mitral (left side).
Semilunar Valves Between ventricles and arteries. Include pulmonic (right ventricle to lungs) and aortic (blood to rest of body).
Murmur Heart valve not working properly. From turbulent blood flow. Blowing or swishing sound. *Stonotic valve regurgitation.
Right Heart Pump Poorly oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the body's organs enters the rt. atrium and is stored until the rt. atrium contracts.
Right Heart Pump Cntd. When the rt. atrium contracts, the tricuspid valve opens allowing blood into the rt. ventricle then to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
Left Heart Pump Well oxygenated blood returning to the heart from the lungs enters the lt. atrium and is stored there until the lt. atrium contracts. When the lt. atrium contracts, the mitral valave opens, allowing blood to enter the lt. ventricle.
Left Heart Pump Cntd. When the lt. ventricle contracts, the aortic valve opens and the blood the propelled into the aorta and to the body.
Arteries Carry blood away from the heart. The aorta is the largest artery.
Veins Return blood to the heart. Have valves. Vena Cava is the largest vein.
Capillaries Known as the "distribution pipes"
Carotid Artery rt. and lt. lie in the groove between the trachea and sternomastoid muscle.
Jugular Veins Empty un-oxygenated blood into the superior vena cava.
JVD Gives information about the rt. side of the heart. COPD pts.
Nonspecific S/S Fatigue, Shortness of breath, Cough, Dizziness, Syncope, Difficulty sleeping.
Specific S/S Chest pain, Palpitations, Edema, Cyanosis, Feeding difficulty w/ infants.
Lifestyle Assessment Stress, Smoking, Personality Type (D more likely), Nutrition, Past med history, Family history.
Coronary Heart Disease #1 Killer
Inspection Skin, mucous membranes, nails, edema, petechia, ulcerations, gangrene, hair distribution on legs, precordium, JVD
Palpation Precordium of chest, Carotid artery, Apical impulse (exhale & hold), Assess for thrill (vibration on chest), Pulse deficit.
Auscultation Aortic, Pulmonic, Erb's, Tricuspid, Mitral (listen for full min). >65% to hear bruit.
Heart Sounds (S1) Beginning of systole. Closure of AV valves. "LUB" loudest at apex. Coincides with carotid pulse. Listen at tricuspid & mitral points.
Heart Sounds (S2) End of systole. Close of semilunar valves. "DUB" loudest at the base. Listen at pulmonic & aortic points.
Heart Sounds (S3) From early rapid ventricular filling. Hear right after S2. Ken-TUCK-y or lub-dub-dee. **Ventricular gallup (sign of early congestive heart failure)
Heart Sounds (S4) From ventricular resistant to filling. May hear before S1. Ten nes SEE or dee-lub-dub. **Atrial gallup (cardiomyopathy)
Sinoatrial node (SA) Initiates electrical impulses. Known as the pacemaker of the heart.
Atrioventricular node (AV) Receive the current that has finished spreading throughout the atria.
Created by: MeganZajac