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life science 6 test

smaller molecules that make up proteins? amino acids
# of different amino acids? 20
2 parts/steps of protein synthesis? a. Transcription b. Translation
what is proteins synthesis? the making of proteins
where does translation take place in the cell? the cytoplasm
first part of protein synthesis where MRNA is made? Transcription
second step of protein synthesis where MRNA is translated into a protein? Translation
2 types of RNA? MRNA & TRNA
the 2 men who discovered the DNA structure? Watson & Crick
Subunits of DNA molecules? Nucleotides
Structure of the DNA molecule? double helix
Base pairing rules for DNA? A-T (adenine - thymine) G-C ( guanine - cytosine)
thymine is replaced by ___________ in RNA? Uracil
3 things that composes a nucleotide are? 1. sugar 2. Base 3. phosphate
4 bases found in DNA? 1. Adenine- A 2. Thymine- T 3. Cytosine-C 4. Guanine-G
3 bases that represent (specify) an amino acid? codon
2 differences between RNA & DNA? 1. DNA is double stranded, and RNA is single stranded 2. DNA stays in nucleus RNA travels to cytoplasm
what are the side rails of DNA made of? phosphate & sugar
what are the rungs of the DNA molecule composed of? the nitrogen bases
what is the easily broken bond that holds the bases together? hydrogen bond
Where does transcription takes place? the nucleus
know about MRNA stands & DNA strands?
the process of equally dividing the genetic material and distributing it to the two new daughter cells mitosis
phase is which the nuclear membrane disappears and the chromosomes thicken to become visible prophase
phase when then new nuclear membranes for near the end of mitosis telophase
form of asexual reproduction where a piece of cytoplasm pinches off the parent cell to form the off spring cell budding
the division of the cytoplasm and organelles of the cell cytokinesis
a form of asexual reproduction where an organism divides equally into two offspring resulting in two offspring that are the same size but smaller than the parent cell binary fission
phase of mitosis where the sister chromatids have separated and are moving to opposite ends of the cell anaphase
fibers that attach to the sister chromatids and pull them to opposite ends of the cell spindle fibers
phase of mitosis where the sister chromatids line up in the center of the spindle (middle of the cell) metaphase
a segment of DNA that contains the information that is needed to build the cell and cell products genes
the process where the reproductive cell are produced with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell is called meiosis
before a cell divides it makes a copy of its genes during interphase
the process where the egg and sperm unite is called fertilization
in which type of reproduction does the offspring receive genes from both parents resulting in offspring that are a genetic combination of its parents sexual
a cell surrounded by a protective covering is a spore
occurs when a new organism is produced from body parts of another organism such as in a starfish regeneration
the end result of meiosis is the production (making) of ___ cells with half the normal # of chromosomes 4
when all the genes of a chromosome have duplicated but are still attached, the structures that are formed are called______ sister chromatids
the process of one cell dividing and becoming two cells in fission
why does regeneration not always result in asexual reproduction? because, if a lizard loses his tail that is a process of repair & replace, it does not produce offspring
three parts of cell division in the order they occur 1.DNA Replication 2.mitosis 3. cytokinesis
two differences between asexual and sexual reproduction asexual- one parent, and has mitosis sexual- has two parents, and has meiosis
what is one difference between meiosis and mitosis meiosis has 2 cell divisions and mitosis has 1 cell division
four phases of mitosis in the order they occur a. prophase b. metaphase c. anaphase c. telophase (* PMAT)
list four types of asexual reproduction and give an example of an organism that reproduces by each type type-_fission_ ex. organism _____bacteria___ types -budding ex. organism------yeast type -spores ex. organism ---- black bread mold type - regeneration ex. organism---- starfish