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test 4

Rotate To turn around an axis
Extension Straightening of a joint
Circumduction Circular movement of a limb
Hyperextension Forced or excessive strightening of a joint
Hyperflextion Forced or excessive flexion of a joint or part
Dorsiflexion Flexion of the foot toward the leg
Deviaton A turning away from the regular standard or coarse
Supinate To turn the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces forward
Pronate To turn the forearm so that the palm of the hand faces forward
Adduction movement of a part toward the central axis of a body or body part
movement of a part away from the central axis of a body or body part Abduction
Inversion Movement of the foot when it is turned inward at the ankle joint
Eversion Movement of when it is turned outward at the ankle joint Movement of the foot when it is turned outward at the ankle joint
Flexion Bending movement of a joint whereby the angle between contiguous bones is diminished
Tilt Movement of a part so that the sagittal(longitudinal)Plane is angled so that it is not parallel with the long axis of the body
Laying face down Prone Position(Ventral recumbent)
Laying on the back Supine Position (Dorsal Recumbent)
Laying down in any position Recumbent Position
Erect or marked by a vertical position Upright position
Lying supine with the head lower than the feet Trendelenburg's Position
Lying supine with the head higher than the feet Fowler's position
Liver, Spleen, Ureters Abdominal
Lungs,Heart, Trachea, esophagus Thoracic
Uterus, Rectum, Ovaries Pelvic
AP (Anteroposterior) Central ray enters the anterior body surface and exits the posterior body surface.
PA (posteroanterior) Centeral ray enters the posterior body surface and exits the anterior body surface
Axial Central ray is angled longitudinally with the long axis of the body
Lateral Central ray enters the side or lateral aspect of the body or body part and exits the other side
Oblique Central ray enters the body or body part from a side angle into the anterior or posterior surface of the body
Tangential Central ray is directed toward the outer margin of a curved body to profile a body part and project it free of superimposition
Projection AP, AP axial, Tangential, AP Oblique, Dorsoplantar, Parietoacanthial
Body Position Supine, upright, Recumbent, Trendelenburg
Radiographic position Lordotic, Left lateral,Right anterior oblique, Right lateral decubitus
away from the head of the body Caudad
near the skin or the surface Suferficial
Soul of the foot Plantar
Toward the head of the body Cephalic
Within or on the inside of an organ Internal
Nearest the point of attachment or origin Proximal
Away from the median plane to the right or left Lateral
outside an organ or the body External
Pertaining to caudad Distal
Opposite of superior Inferior
Posterior side Dorsal
Opposite of lateral Medial
Far from the surface Deep
Opposite of inferior superior
Farthest from the point of reference or origin Distal
At or near the edge of the body part Plantar
Front part of the body Anterior
On the opposite side of the body Contralat
On the same side of the body Ipsilateral
Back part of the body or an organ Posterior
Middle or main part of an organ Central
Ionizing Radiation the radiation is capable of removing orbital electrons from matter and is responsible for biological damage
Radiation protection Effective measures employed by radiation workers to safeguard patients, personnel,and the general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation
two sources of ionizing radiation Natural Background and Man-made
Natural Bakground Radon, Cosmic Radiation, Terrestrial Radiation,Internal Radiation
Man-made Radiation Medical/Dental, Industry, Consumer Products
Radon Radioactive gas from the breakdown of radium in the earth
Cosmic radiation from sun and stars
Terrestrial Radiation Radioactive elements in the earth crust
Internal radiation Within our own bodies from ingestion of food
Medical/dental greatest source of exposure to man-made radiation
Industrial radiation power plants
Consumer Products airports, old tv sets,cigarette
History of radiation X-rays discovered in 1895, Skin damage, hair loss, anemia.who affected? Physicians and patients.In 1904 Clarence Dally died, Thomas Edison assistant.
Name two categories of biological affects. somatic effects( from rec. radiation in a person life time, Describes general body cells), Genetic effects (is passed on to future generations)
Removal of orbital electrons Ionization
List four factors that determine the degree of x-ray's effect on human tissue Dose rate, Area or volume o tissue exposed, age, specific tissue sensitive
three most sensitive area to radiation Reproductive cells, bone marrow, and lens of the eye
three least sensitive area to radiation skin, nerve tissue, and muscle
Dose rate amount of x-ray given over a period of time. the greater the dose rate the greater the chance of tissue damage
Area or Volume of tissue exposure the greater the amount of tissue exposed to x-rays, the greater the chance of tissue damage
Age The younger the person exposed the greater the risk(includes fetus).High mitotic rate, are more sensitive to x-rays
Specific tissue sensitivity Certain tissue in the body are more sensitive to x-ray than other tissues
List four radiation effects that we can prevent by using protective measures Cancer/leukemia, cataract formation, life-span shortening, and genetic mutations in the ova or sperm
List 7 methods used for patient protection Avoid errors and excessive repeat exposures, Collimate the x-ray beam(less exposure this way), Don't use less than 40inch SID,Use the highest kVp factors to consist with study, USE HIGH SPEED FILM/SCREEN IR,PROVIDE SHIELDING,X-ray beam aluminum filtration
What is the minimum lead requirements for shields and the minimum aluminum requirements for x-ray tube filtration lead 0.5mm of lead equivalency, aluminum 2.5beneath the x-ray and above the collimator 80% affective at reducing exposure.
List 4 methods used to reduce occupational exposure for the technologist keep out of primary beam, maximize distance from the source of the x-ray, minimize time in an exposure area, and wear protective lead apparel when necessary
describe the function of personnel radiation monitors. monitors how much radiation a technologist receives on the job(dose limit ha been set at 5rem per year) replaced every 3 months, student is less than 100mrem per year.
List 3 common radiation quantities and state their unit of measures Exposure, (measurements)roentgen(T),Coulombs/kilogram(SI), absorbed dose(measurements),rad(T),or gray(SI), dose equivalent(measurements)rem(T)or sievert(SI)
Created by: CifalaD