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k's vocab for s

vocab for science final

stimulus anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism
homeostasis the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
sexual reproduction reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offspring that share traits from both parents
asexual reproduction reproductoin that does not invovle the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring identical to itself
heredity the passing of genetic traits for parent to offspring
metabolism the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
producer an organism that can make its own foord by using energy from its surroundings
consumer an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter
decomposer an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
protein a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate prcesses i the body
carbohydrate a class of energygiving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipid a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water;fats and steriods are lipids
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
ATP adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes
cell the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm
cell membrane a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface; acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment
organelle one of the small bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function
nucleus membrane bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
prokaryote an organism that consists of a single cell that does not have a nucleus
eukaryote organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; includes: animals, plants, and fungi, but not archaebacteria or eubacteria
cell wall rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
ribosome cell organelle composed of RNA and protein
endoplasmic reticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cells' cytoplasm and that assists in production, processiung, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
mitchondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration
Golgi complex cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
vesicle a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell
lysosone a cell that contains digestive ensymes
tissue a group of similar cells that perform a common function
organ a collectoin of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system a group of organs that work together to perfrom body functions
organism a living thing; anything that can carry out life processes independently
structure the arrangement of parts in an organism
function the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or plant
diffusion the movement of particles from regoins of higher density to regions of lower density
osmosis the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
passive transport the movement of subsstances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
active transport the movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
excytosis the proccss in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that them moves to the cell surfce and fuses with the cell membrane
phtotsynthesis the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food
cellular respiraion the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
fermentation the breakdown of food wihout the use of oxygen
cell cycle the life cycle of a cell
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
homologous chromosone chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis the division of the cytoploasm of a cell
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
dominant trait the trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred
recessive trait a trait that reappears in the second generation after disappearing in the first generation when parents with different traits are bred
gene one set of instructions for an inheried trait
allele one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs acharacteristc, such as hair color
phenotype an orgnaism's apperance or other detectable characteristic
genotype the enitre genetic makup of an organism; combination of genes for one or more specific trait
probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event
homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
meiosis process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
sex chromosomes one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
classification the division of organisms into groups, or classes, based on specific characteristics
taxonomy the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms
dichotomous key an aid that is used to identify organisms and that consists of the answers to a series of questions
Archaebacteria a kingdom made up of bacteria that live in extreme environments
Eubacteria a kingdom that sontains all prokaryotes execpt archaebacteria
Protista a kingdom of mostly onecelled eukaryotic organisms that are different from plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi
Fungi a kingdom made up of nongreen, eukaryotic organisms that have no means of movement reproduce by using spores, and get food by breaking down substances in their surroundings and absorbing the nutrients
Plantae a kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that are usually green, have cell walls made of cellulose, cannot move around, and use the sun's energy to make sugar by photosynthesis
Animalia a kingdom made up of complex, multicellular organisms that lack cell walls, can usually move around, and quickly respond to their environment
Created by: <3ballet!