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ANP1040 Exam 2

What limits how large a cell can be? -the relationship b/twn its volume and length -the relationship b/twn its length & surface area -a cell's lifespan -nutrients available in the environment of a cell -the relationship b/twn its volume & surface are The relationship between it volume & surface area.
The fluid outside of a cell is called -extracellular fluid. -cytosol. -cytoplasm. -intracellular fluid. extracellular fluid
______ are the most abundant molecules in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol molecules -Prostaglandins -Phospholipids -Proteins -Glycolipids Phospholipids
_____ are membrane proteins that bind to signals by which cells communicate. -Receptors -Cell-adhesion molecules -Carriers -Enzymes -Cell-identity markers Receptors
A receptor protein in the plasma membrane will not bind to just any chemical in the extracellular fluid, but only to certain ones. That is to say, the receptor exhibits -efficacy. -selectivity. -fidelity. -saturation. -specificity. specificity
Most amino acids embedded in the membrane are ________, while most amino acids facing the extracellular fluid are ______. -hydrophobic; hydrophobic -hydrophilic; hydrophobic -lipophilic; lipophobic -hydrophilic; hydrophilic -hydrophobic; hydrophilic hydrophobic; hydrophilic
Cells lining the small intestine are specialized for absorption of nutrients. Their plasma membrane has: -dynein arms. -a glycocalyx. -microvilli. -flagella. -cilia. microvilli
2 sols sep'd by selectively permeable membrane. If A higher concentration of a nonperm. solute than B then -solute will pass down A to B -neither the solute nor H2O will diffuse -water will pass down A to B -H2O will pass down B to A -the solute will water will pass down its concentration gradient from solution B to A.
__ is process in which ___ forces H2O & small solutes such as salts thru narrow clefts b/twn cap cells. -Active transport; hydrostatic pressure -Filtration; hydrostatic pressure -Osmosis; osmotic pressure -Osmosis; hydrostatic pressure -Active trans Filtration; hydrostatic pressure
The sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) pump transports both sodium and potassium ________ their concentration gradients in a process called _____. -up; cotransport -up; active transport -down; active transport -up; facilitated transport -down; countertranspo up; active transport
A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of solutes in the solution is ____ than the concentration of solutes in the ICF & will cause the cell to ____. -lower; burst -lower; shrink -lower; swell -higher; shrink -higher; higher; shrink
Which of the following processes could occur only through the plasma membrane of a living cell? -osmosis -simple diffusion -filtration -facilitated diffusion -active transport active transport
White blood cells engulf bacteria by means of -cotransport. -pinocytosis. -active transport. -receptor-mediated endocytosis. -phagocytosis. phagocytosis.
A patient was severely dehydrated, losing large amount of fluid. Pt was given intravenous fluids of nml saline. Normal saline is ____ to your blood cells and is about ___ NaCl. -hypertonic; 9% -hypotonic; 0.9% -hypotonic; 9% -isotonic; 9% -isotonic; isotonic; 0.9%
Which of these is an ex. of active transport? -diffusion of O2 from a high to lower concentration -facilitated diffusion of K+ -transport of glucose down its gradient -transport of Na+ from a low to high -transport of Cl- follows its gradient transport of Na+ from a place of low concentration to a place of higher concentration
These are all membranous organelles except: -endoplasmic reticulum. -the nucleus. -ribosomes. -mitochondria. -the Golgi complex. ribosomes
What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed? -active transport -ciliary action -osmosis -protein synthesis -exocytosis protein synthesis
Muscle cells contain numerous _____________ to serve their high demand for ATP. -ribosomes -lysosomes -inclusions -mitochondria -Golgi vesicles mitochondria
This organelle synthesizes steroids in the ovary and stores calcium in muscle cells. -rough endoplasmic reticulum -mitochondrion -nucleus -smooth endoplasmic reticulum -Golgi complex smooth endoplasmic reticulum
______ play an important role in cell division, and they are made of __________. -Inclusions; centrosomes -Ribosomes; intermediate filaments -Centrioles; microtubules -Mitochondria; microtubules -Nucleoli; microfilaments Centrioles; microtubules
________________ synthesize(s) carbohydrates and put(s) finishing touches on proteins synthesized at ____________. -Smooth ER; the Golgi complex -Smooth ER; rough ER -Ribosomes; smooth ER -The Golgi complex; smooth ER -The Golgi complex; rough ER The Golgi complex; rough ER
___________ is not involved in protein synthesis. -Smooth ER -Ribosomes -The Golgi complex -The nucleus -Rough ER Smooth ER
____________ gives structural support, determines the shape of a cell, and directs the movement of substances through the cell. -The Golgi complex -The cytoskeleton -Cholesterol -The plasma membrane -The nucleus The cytoskeleton
If a DNA molecule were known to be 22% thymine (T), what would be the percentage of guanine (G)? -78% -28% -22% -11% -8% 28&
________________________ is the DNA base sequence complementary to the strand TGCCAT. -ACGGTA -ACCGTA -UGCCAU -ACGGUA -TGCCAT ACGGTA
A ________________________ contains the necessary information for the production of a molecule of RNA. -genetic code -nucleotide -gene -genome -codon gene
Copying genetic info from DNA into RNA called __, using info contained in mRNA to make a polypeptide is called __. -DNA translation; RNA transcription -transcription; translation -translation; transcription -DNA repl; translation -DNA dup; transcript transcription; translation
All of the following are directly involved in translation except tRNA. mRNA. rRNA. DNA. ribosomes. DNA
Transcription occurs in the _________________, but most translation occurs in the _____________. -nucleolus; cytoplasm -nucleus; cytoplasm -nucleolus; rough endoplasmic reticulum -nucleus; nucleolus -cytoplasm; nucleus nucleus; cytoplasm
After translation, a protein may undergo structural changes called ________________ modifications. polyribosomal splicing posttranscriptional posttranslational secretory posttranslational
Pathway of a tagged amino acid used to make insulin to be exported out of cell: -RoughER→Golgi complex→Golgi vesicle→EFC -SmoothER→Golgi comp→lysosome→EFC -SER→Golgi comp→Golgi ves→EFC -free ribosome→cytosol→vesicle→EFC -RER→SER→Golgi comp→Golgi ves→ rough ER → Golgi complex → Golgi vesicle → EFC
DNA polymerase is most active in G0. M. G1. G2. S. S
G1, S, and G2 phases are collectively called prophase. anaphase. cytokinesis. telophase. interphase. interphase
The stage at which chromosomes aggregate along the equator of a cell is anaphase. metaphase. prophase. interphase. telophase. metaphase
Sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of a cell during S phase. anaphase. G2 phase. metaphase. prophase. anaphase
Chromatin shortens and thickens, coiling into compact rods during anaphase. telophase. interphase. metaphase. prophase. prophase
The allele for cleft chin (C) is dominant to the allele for uncleft chin (c). A male and female who are both heterozygous for cleft chin have a child. What is the chance that this child will have an uncleft chin? 0 100% 50% 75% 25% 25%
Accurately identify the parts of the plasma membrane See diagram
Correctly identify the following parts of transmembrane proteins. See diagram
Classify the following phases into interphase or the mitotic phase of cell division. -Prophase -Metaphase -S -G2 -Telophase -Cytokinesis -G1 -Prophase Mitotic Phase -Prophase -Metaphase -Anaphase -Telophase -Cytokinesis Interphase -G1 -S -G2
What is the difference between genetic transcription and translation? Transcription is when we read DNA to make a strand of mRNA. Translation is when we translate from the mRNA and create an Amino Acid Chain.
Define hypertonic and explain the importantance in clinical practice. Hypertonic solution has a relatively high solute concentration and causes water to leave the cell. Hypertonic causes a cell crenate (or shrink).
Define isotonic and explain the importantance in clinical practice. Isotonic solution has same solute concentration as cells. Clinical importance-decide what type of solution to use when cleaning a wound & whether the sol would cause patient discomfort or complicate healing or type of IV sol to use. Isotonic = balanced.
Define hypotonic and explain the importantance in clinical practice. Hypotonic solution has a relatively low solute concentration and causes water to enter the cell. Hypotonic allows more fluid into the cell which can cause it to rupture.
The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except fibrous. muscular. nervous. connective. epithelial. fibrous
The clear gel inside a cell is called tissue fluid. matrix. ground substance. interstitial fluid. cytosol. cytosol
_______________ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs. Adipose tissue Interstitial tissue Epithelial tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue Epithelial tissue
An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________ stratified squamous. simple cuboidal. simple columnar. stratified cuboidal. pseudostratified columnar. simple columnar
The basement membrane is found between -epithelium and extracellular material. -epithelium and intracellular material. -interstitial fluid and extracellular fluid. -epithelium and connective tissue. -extracellular material and intracellular material epithelium and connective tissue
______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. Simple squamous Simple cuboidal Simple columnar Stratified squamous-keratinized Stratified squamous-nonkeratini Simple squamous
_____________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes. Goblet Basal Basement membrane Simple Keratinized Goblet
A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________. stratified squamous; anal canal pseudostratified; nasal cavity stratified squamous; esophagus -simple columnar; small intestine -simple cuboidal; esoph simple columnar; small intestine
__ epithelium in bladder resembles ___ epithelium, but apical cells are rounded, not flattened. -Stratified squamous; strat columnar -Strat squamous; pseudostrat -Transitional; strat squamous -Simple columnar; pseudostrat -Transitional; simple cuboid Transitional; stratified squamous
__ epithelium is assoc. w/rapid transport of substances thru membrane, whereas __ epithelium is assoc. w/resist. to abrasion -Pseudostrat; simple cubodial -Simple cubod; pseudostrat -Simple col; trans. -Pseudostrat; simple squam -Simple squam; strat Simple squamous; stratified squamous
The shape of a person's external ear is given by dense regular connective tissue. ligaments. dense irregular connective tissue. fibrocartilage. elastic cartilage. elastic cartilage
New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and others are hydrolyzed and released into circulation mostly from cells in adipose tissue. transitional tissue. fibrous connective tissue. blood. reticular tissue. adipose tissue
_ tissues respond quick to outside stimuli by changes in membrane potential, thus they are called _ tissues. -Adipose & areolar; complex -Epithelial & connect.; irritable -Nerv. & connect.; excitable -Musc. & nerv.; excitable -Connect. & musc.; respo Muscular and nervous; excitable
Nervous tissue consists predominantly of two cell types, neurons and chondrocytes. myocytes. neuroglia. fibroblasts. osteocytes. neuroglia
Skeletal muscle is described as nonstriated and involuntary. striated and voluntary. striated and involuntary. fibrous and contracting. nonstriated and voluntary. striated and voluntary
__________________ secrete __________________ into __________________. Exocrine glands; hormones; ducts Goblet cells; mucus; the blood Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood Endocrine glands; hormones; ducts Exocrine glands; mucus; the blo Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood
The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue is called gangrene. apoptosis. necrosis. fibrosis. regeneration. fibrosis
Correctly label the following areas on a slide of simple squamous epithelium. See diagram.
Correctly label the following areas on a slide of simple columnar epithelium. See diagram.
Correctly identify the following types of membrane proteins. See diagram.
Know bilayer diagram
Know cell diagram.
Created by: shaston001