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Macrominerals Calcium, Sodium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Potassium, Chloride
Calcium sources Dairy products, sardines, clams and oysters, cruciferous vegetables, tofu, fortified juices
Calcium Absorption Reduced by Oxalate, Phytate, phosphorus (but not likely to affect Ca balance), Menopause, Age, Iron
Calcium absorption increased by Vitamin D
Calcium absorption excretion may be increased by Protein, Sodium, Chloride
Calcium absorption supplements Citrate is best absorbed, take carbonate with food,
Functions of Calcium Normal bone (99% of Ca in bones and teeth, Hydroxyapatite- bone crystals, men lose bone mass at high rate in menopause) ; Intracellular messenger: Activates protein kinase(phosphorylations) Activates phospholipase
Functions of Calcium cont'd: - Muscle contraction : Ca enters muscle and binds to troponin c - Blood clotting: required for activation of clotting factors - Normal Blood Pressure - Colon Cancer Prevention
Calcium Deficiency - Decrease in serum : Tetany = uncontrolled muscle contraction - Decrease in bone : Rickets in children; Osteoporosis in adults - Decrease intake : HTN, Colon Ca, Weight Gain
Calcium Assessment Serum Calcium , Serum ionized Ca (direct measure of active calcium levels), Bone mass/density Ca (best measured by Dexa)
Phosphorus sources Dairy, MFP, Nuts/Seeds, Legumes, Soft Drinks
Phosphorus Absorption - Decreased by: Phytates, Magnesium Calcium - Increased by : Vitamin D
Phosphorus Fuctions - Bone mineralization = hydroxyapatite - Energy-rich compounds = ATP, creatine phosphate - Phospholipids = cell membranes - Coenzyme form of vitamins = PLP, NADPH, TDP, TPP - Nucleic acid structures = Alternates with pentoses to form back bone
Phosphorus Deficiency - Rare due to widespread sources
Phosphorus at risk Antacids or phos-binders Starvation - refeeding sydrome
Phosphorus deficiency symptoms Children : rickets Adults : osteomalacia Muscular weakness Loss of appetite Hemolytic anemia
Phosphorus toxicity AT RISK: renal failure Symptoms : renal bone disease, soft tissue calcification
Phosphorus assessment Serum phosphorus
Magnesium Sources Nuts, Legumes, Whole grains, Green Vegetables
Magnesium absorption decreased by phytates, phosphorus increased by: vitamin D
Magnesium functions Enzyme cofactor = kinases - Protein and nucleic acid synthesis - Bone structure - Blood pressure = vasodilator, and cofactor for fatty acid metabolism and synthesis of prostaglandins
Magnesium deficiency Muscle effects = tremors, weakness, spasms N/V, anorexia Osteporosis? Low intakes related to heart disease
Magnesium toxicity At risk: renal failure Symptoms: diarrhea
Magnesium Assessment Serum concentration and urine excretion
Sodium sources Processed foods, pickeled foods, table salt, softened water, MSG
Sodium functions - Primary extracellular cation - Regulation of fluid status and blood pressure - Nerve transmission (depolarization) - Acid base balance ( Sodium exchanges for H+ at kidney) - Absorption of glucose
Sodium deficiency Rare, but may cause intracellular edema - Caused by fluid loss and replacement of water only
Sodium toxicity - increase blood pressure - stiff arteries - AT RISK: renal failure, heart failure
Potassium sources Unprocessed foods, Fruits/Veggies, Peanut butter, Dairy, Legumes, salt substitutes
Potassium Functions - Primary intracellular cation - Nerve transmission - Regulation of fluid balance and blood presure
Potassium deficiency AT RISK : fluid lost, K-wasting diuretics, Starvation ( refeeding syndrome) - Hypertension - Hypokalemia = muscle weakness, mental confusion, arrythmias
K toxicity Usually not due to diet AT RISK: renal failure
Chloride sources Same as sodium, Eggs Seafood
Chloride functions - Fluid/electroylte balance (opposes sodium) - Component HCL - Acid/Base balance = lose H+ during vomiting, exchange for bicarbonate in RBCs
Chloride deficiency AT RISK: excess fluid loss SYMPTOMS: convulsions
Chloride toxicity AT RISK: dehydration INCREASE BP: as salt
Chloride Assessment Serum concentration
Created by: xllynnn