Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Test6-chp50,51,52,70

Chapter_50-51-52-70 - Immunity

QuestionAnswer
agglutination: clumping effect occurring when an antibody acts as a cross-link between two antigens
antibody: a protein substance developed by the body in response to and interacting with a specific antigen
antigen: substance that induces the production of antibodies
antigenic determinant: the specific area of an antigen that binds with an antibody combining site and determines the specificity of the antigen–antibody reaction
apoptosis: programmed cell death that results from the digestion of deoxyribonucleic acid by endonucleases
B cells: cells that are important for producing a humoral immune response
cellular immune response: the immune system’s third line of defense, involving the attack of pathogens by T cells
complement: series of enzymatic proteins in the serum that, when activated, destroy bacteria and other cells
cytokines: generic term for nonantibody proteins that act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of immune response
cytotoxic T cells: lymphocytes that lyse cells infected with virus; also play a role in graft rejection
epitope: any component of an antigen molecule that functions as an antigenetic determinant by permitting the attachment of certain antibodies
genetic engineering: emerging technology designed to enable replacement of missing or defective genes
helper T cells: lymphocytes that attack foreign invaders (antigens) directly
humoral immune response: the immune system’s second line of defense; often termed the antibody response
immune response: the coordinated response of the components of the immune system to a foreign agent or organism
immune system: the collection of organs, cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate the immune response
immunity: the body’s specific protective response to a foreign agent or organism; resistance to disease, specifically infectious diseases
immunopathology: study of diseases resulting in dysfunctions within the immune system
immunoregulation: complex system of checks and balances that regulates or controls immune responses
interferons: proteins formed when cells are exposed to viral or foreign agents; capable of activating other components of the immune system
lymphokines: substances released by sensitized lymphocytes when they come in contact with specific antigens
memory cells: cells that are responsible for recognizing antigens from previous exposure and mounting an immune response
natural killer (NK) cells: lymphocytes that defend against microorganisms and malignant cells
null lymphocytes: lymphocytes that destroy antigens already coated with the antibody
opsonization: the coating of antigen–antibody molecules with a sticky substance to facilitate phagocytosis
phagocytic cells: cells that engulf, ingest, and destroy foreign bodies or toxins
phagocytic immune response: the immune system’s first line of defense, involving white blood cells that have the ability to ingest foreign particles
stem cells: precursors of all blood cells; reside primarily in bone marrow
suppressor T cells: lymphocytes that decrease B-cell activity to a level at which the immune system is compatible with life
T cells: cells that are important for producing a cellular immune response
agammaglobulinemia: disorder marked by an almost complete lack of immunoglobulins or antibodies
angioneurotic edema: condition marked by development of urticaria and an edematous area of skin, mucous membranes, or viscera
ataxia: loss of muscle coordination
ataxia-telangiectasia: autosomal recessive disorder affecting T- and B-cell immunity primarily seen in children and resulting in a degenerative brain disease
hypogammaglobulinemia: lack of one or more of the five immunoglobulins; caused by B-cell deficiency
immunocompromised host: person with a secondary immunodeficiency and associated immunosuppression
panhypoglobulinemia: general lack of immunoglobulins in the blood
severe combined immunodeficiency disease: disorder involving a complete absence of humoral and cellular immunity resulting from an X-linked or autosomal genetic abnormality
telangiectasia: vascular lesions caused by dilated blood vessels
thymic hypoplasia: T-cell deficiency that occurs when the thymus gland fails to develop normally during embryogenesis; also known as DiGeorge syndrome
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: immunodeficiency characterized by thrombocytopenia and the absence of T and B cells
alpha-interferon: protein substance that the body produces in response to infection
B-cell lymphoma: common malignancy in patients with HIV/AIDS
candidiasis: yeast infection of skin or mucous membrane
CCR5: along with the CD4_ receptor, this cell surface molecule isused by HIV to fuse with the host’s cell membranes
cytomegalovirus: a species-specific herpes virus that may cause retinitis in people with AIDS
EIA (enzyme immunoassay): a blood test that can determine the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or saliva; also referred to as
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): . Positiveresults must be validated, usually with Western blot test.
HIV-1: retrovirus isolated and recognized as the etiologic agent of AIDS
HIV-2: retrovirus identified in 1986 in AIDS patients in West Africa
HIV encephalopathy: degenerative neurologic condition characterized by a group of clinical presentations including loss of coordination, mood swings, loss of inhibitions, and widespread cognitive dysfunctions; formerly referred to as AIDS dementia complex (ADC)
human papillomavirus (HPV): viruses that cause various warts, including plantar and genital warts; some strains of HPV can also cause cervical cancer
immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a syndrome that results from rapid restoration of pathogen-specific immune responses to opportunistic infections; most often occurs after starting antiretroviral therapy
Kaposi’s sarcoma: malignancy that involves the epithelial layer of blood and lymphatic vessels
latent reservoir: the integrated HIV provirus within the CD4_ T cell during the resting memory state; does not express viral proteins and is invisible to the immune system and antiviral medications.
macrophage: large immune cell that devours invading pathogens and other intruders; can harbor large quantities of HIV without being killed, acting as a reservoir of the virus
monocyte: large white blood cell that ingests microbes or other cells and foreign particles. When a monocyte enters tissues, it develops into a macrophage.
Mycobacterium avium complex: opportunistic infection caused by mycobacterial organisms that commonly causes a respiratory illness but can also infect other body systems
opportunistic infection: illness caused by various organisms, some of which usually do not cause disease in people with normal immune systems
p24 antigen: blood test that measures viral core protein; accuracy of test is limited because the p24 antibody binds with the antigen and makes it undetectable
peripheral neuropathy: disorder characterized by sensory loss, pain, muscle weakness, and wasting of muscles in the hands or legs and feet
Pneumocystis pneumonia or Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP): common opportunistic lung infection caused by an organism, believed to be a fungus based on its structure
polymerase chain reaction: a sensitive laboratory technique that can detect and quantify HIV in a person’s blood or lymph nodes
primary infection: 4- to 7-week period of rapid viral replication immediately following infection; also known as acute HIV infection
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: opportunistic infection that infects brain tissue and causes damage to the brain and spinal cord
protease inhibitor: medication that inhibits the function of protease, an enzyme needed for HIV replication
provirus: viral genetic material in the form of DNA that has been integrated into the host genome. When it is dormant in human cells, HIV is in a proviral form.
retrovirus: a virus that carries genetic material in RNA instead of DNA and contains reverse transcriptase
reverse transcriptase: enzyme that transforms single-stranded RNA into a double-stranded DNA
viral load test: measures the quantity of HIV RNA in the blood
viral set point: amount of virus present in the blood after the initial burst of viremia and the immune response that follows
wasting syndrome: involuntary weight loss of 10% of baseline body weight with chronic diarrhea or chronic weakness and documented fever
Western blot assay: a blood test that identifies antibodies to HIV and is used to confirm the results of an EIA (ELISA) test
window period: time from infection with HIV until seroconversion detected on HIV antibody test
bacteremia: laboratory-proven presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): a strain of MRSA infecting persons who have not been treated in a health care setting
carrier: person who has an organism without apparent signs and symptoms; one who is able to transmit an infection to others
colonization: microorganisms present in or on a host, without host interference or interaction and without eliciting symptoms in the host
emerging infectious diseases: human infectious diseases with incidence increased within the past two decades or potential increase in the near future
fungemia: a bloodstream infection caused by a fungal organism
health care–associated infection (HAI): an infection not present or incubating at the time of admission to the health care setting; this term is replacing the term “nosocomial infection,” which refers only to those infections acquired in a hospital
host: an organism that provides living conditions to support a microorganism
immune: person with protection from a previous infection or immunization who resists reinfection when reexposed to the same agent
incubation period: time between contact and onset of signs and symptoms
infection: condition in which the host interacts physiologically and immunologically with a microorganism
infectious disease: the consequences that result from invasion of the body by microorganisms that can produce harm to the body and potentially death
latency: time interval after primary infection when a microorganism lives within the host without producing clinical evidence
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that is not susceptible to extended-penicillin antibiotic formulas, such as methicillin, oxacillin, or nafcillin; MRSA may occur in a health care or in a community setting
normal flora: persistent nonpathogenic organisms colonizing a host
reservoir: any person, plant, animal, substance, or location that provides living conditions for microorganisms and that enables further dispersal of the organism
Standard Precautions: strategy of assuming all patients may carry infectious agents and using appropriate barrier precautions for all health care worker–patient interactions
susceptible: not possessing immunity to a particular pathogen
transient flora: organisms that have been recently acquired and are likely to be shed in a relatively short period
Transmission-Based Precautions: precautions used in addition to Standard Precautions when contagious or epidemiologically significant organisms are recognized; the three types of Transmission-Based Precautions are Airborne, Droplet, and Contact Precautions
vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE): Enterococcus bacterium that is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin
vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA): Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that is not susceptible to vancomycin
virulence: degree of pathogenicity of an organism
Created by: jhrobins99