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Chapter_50-51-52-70 - Immunity

agglutination: clumping effect occurring when an antibody acts as a cross-link between two antigens
antibody: a protein substance developed by the body in response to and interacting with a specific antigen
antigen: substance that induces the production of antibodies
antigenic determinant: the specific area of an antigen that binds with an antibody combining site and determines the specificity of the antigen–antibody reaction
apoptosis: programmed cell death that results from the digestion of deoxyribonucleic acid by endonucleases
B cells: cells that are important for producing a humoral immune response
cellular immune response: the immune system’s third line of defense, involving the attack of pathogens by T cells
complement: series of enzymatic proteins in the serum that, when activated, destroy bacteria and other cells
cytokines: generic term for nonantibody proteins that act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of immune response
cytotoxic T cells: lymphocytes that lyse cells infected with virus; also play a role in graft rejection
epitope: any component of an antigen molecule that functions as an antigenetic determinant by permitting the attachment of certain antibodies
genetic engineering: emerging technology designed to enable replacement of missing or defective genes
helper T cells: lymphocytes that attack foreign invaders (antigens) directly
humoral immune response: the immune system’s second line of defense; often termed the antibody response
immune response: the coordinated response of the components of the immune system to a foreign agent or organism
immune system: the collection of organs, cells, tissues, and molecules that mediate the immune response
immunity: the body’s specific protective response to a foreign agent or organism; resistance to disease, specifically infectious diseases
immunopathology: study of diseases resulting in dysfunctions within the immune system
immunoregulation: complex system of checks and balances that regulates or controls immune responses
interferons: proteins formed when cells are exposed to viral or foreign agents; capable of activating other components of the immune system
lymphokines: substances released by sensitized lymphocytes when they come in contact with specific antigens
memory cells: cells that are responsible for recognizing antigens from previous exposure and mounting an immune response
natural killer (NK) cells: lymphocytes that defend against microorganisms and malignant cells
null lymphocytes: lymphocytes that destroy antigens already coated with the antibody
opsonization: the coating of antigen–antibody molecules with a sticky substance to facilitate phagocytosis
phagocytic cells: cells that engulf, ingest, and destroy foreign bodies or toxins
phagocytic immune response: the immune system’s first line of defense, involving white blood cells that have the ability to ingest foreign particles
stem cells: precursors of all blood cells; reside primarily in bone marrow
suppressor T cells: lymphocytes that decrease B-cell activity to a level at which the immune system is compatible with life
T cells: cells that are important for producing a cellular immune response
agammaglobulinemia: disorder marked by an almost complete lack of immunoglobulins or antibodies
angioneurotic edema: condition marked by development of urticaria and an edematous area of skin, mucous membranes, or viscera
ataxia: loss of muscle coordination
ataxia-telangiectasia: autosomal recessive disorder affecting T- and B-cell immunity primarily seen in children and resulting in a degenerative brain disease
hypogammaglobulinemia: lack of one or more of the five immunoglobulins; caused by B-cell deficiency
immunocompromised host: person with a secondary immunodeficiency and associated immunosuppression
panhypoglobulinemia: general lack of immunoglobulins in the blood
severe combined immunodeficiency disease: disorder involving a complete absence of humoral and cellular immunity resulting from an X-linked or autosomal genetic abnormality
telangiectasia: vascular lesions caused by dilated blood vessels
thymic hypoplasia: T-cell deficiency that occurs when the thymus gland fails to develop normally during embryogenesis; also known as DiGeorge syndrome
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: immunodeficiency characterized by thrombocytopenia and the absence of T and B cells
alpha-interferon: protein substance that the body produces in response to infection
B-cell lymphoma: common malignancy in patients with HIV/AIDS
candidiasis: yeast infection of skin or mucous membrane
CCR5: along with the CD4_ receptor, this cell surface molecule isused by HIV to fuse with the host’s cell membranes
cytomegalovirus: a species-specific herpes virus that may cause retinitis in people with AIDS
EIA (enzyme immunoassay): a blood test that can determine the presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or saliva; also referred to as
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): . Positiveresults must be validated, usually with Western blot test.
HIV-1: retrovirus isolated and recognized as the etiologic agent of AIDS
HIV-2: retrovirus identified in 1986 in AIDS patients in West Africa
HIV encephalopathy: degenerative neurologic condition characterized by a group of clinical presentations including loss of coordination, mood swings, loss of inhibitions, and widespread cognitive dysfunctions; formerly referred to as AIDS dementia complex (ADC)
human papillomavirus (HPV): viruses that cause various warts, including plantar and genital warts; some strains of HPV can also cause cervical cancer
immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a syndrome that results from rapid restoration of pathogen-specific immune responses to opportunistic infections; most often occurs after starting antiretroviral therapy
Kaposi’s sarcoma: malignancy that involves the epithelial layer of blood and lymphatic vessels
latent reservoir: the integrated HIV provirus within the CD4_ T cell during the resting memory state; does not express viral proteins and is invisible to the immune system and antiviral medications.
macrophage: large immune cell that devours invading pathogens and other intruders; can harbor large quantities of HIV without being killed, acting as a reservoir of the virus
monocyte: large white blood cell that ingests microbes or other cells and foreign particles. When a monocyte enters tissues, it develops into a macrophage.
Mycobacterium avium complex: opportunistic infection caused by mycobacterial organisms that commonly causes a respiratory illness but can also infect other body systems
opportunistic infection: illness caused by various organisms, some of which usually do not cause disease in people with normal immune systems
p24 antigen: blood test that measures viral core protein; accuracy of test is limited because the p24 antibody binds with the antigen and makes it undetectable
peripheral neuropathy: disorder characterized by sensory loss, pain, muscle weakness, and wasting of muscles in the hands or legs and feet
Pneumocystis pneumonia or Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP): common opportunistic lung infection caused by an organism, believed to be a fungus based on its structure
polymerase chain reaction: a sensitive laboratory technique that can detect and quantify HIV in a person’s blood or lymph nodes
primary infection: 4- to 7-week period of rapid viral replication immediately following infection; also known as acute HIV infection
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: opportunistic infection that infects brain tissue and causes damage to the brain and spinal cord
protease inhibitor: medication that inhibits the function of protease, an enzyme needed for HIV replication
provirus: viral genetic material in the form of DNA that has been integrated into the host genome. When it is dormant in human cells, HIV is in a proviral form.
retrovirus: a virus that carries genetic material in RNA instead of DNA and contains reverse transcriptase
reverse transcriptase: enzyme that transforms single-stranded RNA into a double-stranded DNA
viral load test: measures the quantity of HIV RNA in the blood
viral set point: amount of virus present in the blood after the initial burst of viremia and the immune response that follows
wasting syndrome: involuntary weight loss of 10% of baseline body weight with chronic diarrhea or chronic weakness and documented fever
Western blot assay: a blood test that identifies antibodies to HIV and is used to confirm the results of an EIA (ELISA) test
window period: time from infection with HIV until seroconversion detected on HIV antibody test
bacteremia: laboratory-proven presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA): a strain of MRSA infecting persons who have not been treated in a health care setting
carrier: person who has an organism without apparent signs and symptoms; one who is able to transmit an infection to others
colonization: microorganisms present in or on a host, without host interference or interaction and without eliciting symptoms in the host
emerging infectious diseases: human infectious diseases with incidence increased within the past two decades or potential increase in the near future
fungemia: a bloodstream infection caused by a fungal organism
health care–associated infection (HAI): an infection not present or incubating at the time of admission to the health care setting; this term is replacing the term “nosocomial infection,” which refers only to those infections acquired in a hospital
host: an organism that provides living conditions to support a microorganism
immune: person with protection from a previous infection or immunization who resists reinfection when reexposed to the same agent
incubation period: time between contact and onset of signs and symptoms
infection: condition in which the host interacts physiologically and immunologically with a microorganism
infectious disease: the consequences that result from invasion of the body by microorganisms that can produce harm to the body and potentially death
latency: time interval after primary infection when a microorganism lives within the host without producing clinical evidence
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that is not susceptible to extended-penicillin antibiotic formulas, such as methicillin, oxacillin, or nafcillin; MRSA may occur in a health care or in a community setting
normal flora: persistent nonpathogenic organisms colonizing a host
reservoir: any person, plant, animal, substance, or location that provides living conditions for microorganisms and that enables further dispersal of the organism
Standard Precautions: strategy of assuming all patients may carry infectious agents and using appropriate barrier precautions for all health care worker–patient interactions
susceptible: not possessing immunity to a particular pathogen
transient flora: organisms that have been recently acquired and are likely to be shed in a relatively short period
Transmission-Based Precautions: precautions used in addition to Standard Precautions when contagious or epidemiologically significant organisms are recognized; the three types of Transmission-Based Precautions are Airborne, Droplet, and Contact Precautions
vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE): Enterococcus bacterium that is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin
vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA): Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that is not susceptible to vancomycin
virulence: degree of pathogenicity of an organism
Created by: jhrobins99