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Biology: B1 gcse

Biology: B1

What are the five animal kingdoms? Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protoctista and Prokaryotae.
What are the characteristics of Animalia? Multicellular, hetrophic feeding(so no chlorophyll, no cell walls, complex cell structure with nucleus.
What are the characteristics of Plantae? Multicellular, autotrophic feedinf using chlorophyll, cell walls made of cellulose and complex cell structure with nucleus.
What are the characterstics of Fungi? Multicellular, cell walls not made of cellulose, saprophytic feeders (so no chlorophyll) and complex cell structure with nucleus.
What are the characteristics of Protocista? Mosly unicellular (except a few) and complex cell structure with a nucleus.
What are the characteristics of Prokaryotae? Unicellular and simple cell structures with no nucleus.
What are the levels of Classification? Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species.
What is there no kingdom for because many scientists do not consider them to be alive? Viruses.
Definition of autotrophic feeding? Using an energy source to make food from small molecules.
Definition of Heterotrophic feeding? Getting food by eating and diesting other organisms.
Definition of Saprophytuc feeding? Getting food by digesting other organisms outside the body and absorbing thr digested food.
Definition of Oviparous? The yound are not born live - eggs are layed instead.
Definition of Viviparous? The young are born live.
Definition of Homeotherms? Can create body warmth by self, not controlled by their enviroment.
Definiton of Poikilotherms? Body warmth dependant on enviroment.
What is a species? A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
What is a hybrid? A hybrid is an organism that is the result of breading together two diffrent species, with characteristics from each.
What is biodiversity? Biodiversity is the measure of the total number of different species in an area and the number of individuals of each species.
What are food chains and how do they link with food webs? A food chain shows the passage of food (and energy) from one eorganism to another. The arrows represent the flow of energy between each trophic level. These link to form food webs in a community of organisms.
What adaptations might a Polar Bear have? A Polar Bear would have: Blubber under fur, Thick fur to keep warm, small ears as to not lose too much heat, wide surface area on feet as to not sink into the snow, white fur to camoflage, rough solers to grip the ice and wide feet for swimming.
What is an adaptation? An adaptation is when an organism has a certain characteristic that helps them to survive better in certain places.
What are the conditions in the deep sea? Conditions in the deep sea are: Very high pressure, Cold but stable, a lot of dead matter, no sunlight, lack of producers and some have hydrothermal vents.
What are the conditions in the desert? Conditions in the desert are: Very dry, often sandstorms, lack of producers and extreme temperatures (Boiling during day and cold during nights.)
What is Darwin's theory of 'Evolution'? Darwin's theory of Evolution is that all life evolved form simple organisms over 3,000,000,000 years, gradual change.
What is Survival of the fittest/Natural selection? This concept means that those who will survive are those who are the fittest, 'fittest' menaing those who have the best adaptations to survive, or those who have advantageous characteristics.
When does extinction occur? Extinction occurs when a species is unable to adapt when there is: increased competition, dramatic changes in the enviroment, new diseases or new predators. When there is extinction all the organisms of a species die out.
What is speciation by geographical isolation? When a species is seperated geographically. Each group of the seperated species adapts to their own enviroment and over time these adaptations become substantial. Once the physical barrier is removed the two now seperate species are unable to mate.
What is a Nucleus? A Nucleus controls the activitis of a cell.
What are Chromosomes? Contains the genetic information. 23 pairs in a human cell.
What are Genes? A section of DNA that carries instrucions for a characteristic. Have differnt forms called alleles.
What is DNA? The chemical that makes up Genes and Chromosomes, the instructions for a cell's growth and activity. Contains coded information.
How do DNA, Gene, Chromosomes and the Nucles link? The DNA are tightly wound forming Genes, each controlling diffrent characteristics. The Genes together then form the chromosomes, of which there are 23 pairs in a human cell's Nucleus.
What is a Genotype? The type of genes/alleles you have, e.g.BB, bb, Bb.
What is a Phenotype? The physical expression of the alleles/what you looklike. E.g. blue or brown eyes.
What are Alleles? A different form of a gene that codes for a different version of a characteristic.
What are Dominant alleles? An allele that will always be expressed even when there is only one of these alleles present. Represented by a CAPITAL LETTER.
What are Recessive alleles? An allele that will only be expressed when both alleles are of this type (e.g. bb). Represented by a lower case letter.
What is the definition of Homozygous? Two identical genes in a Zygote, e.g. BB or bb.
What is the definition of Hetrozygous? Two different genes in a Zygote, e.g. Bb.
What causes a genetic disorder? A genetic disorder is caused by faulty allele. These alleles are often recessive (such as in sickle cell disease and in Cystic Fibrosis) but can sometimes be a dominant allele (such as in Huntingdon's disease).
What is Biomass? Biomass is the mass of an organism (or a population of organisms) when all the water has been removed, i.e. dry mass.
What is Parasitism? Parasitism is a feeding relstionship where a parasite lives off another organism (the host), to the host's detriment.
What is an Ectoparasite? They cling to the host's body surface rather than inside them. Examples being Fleas and headlice both of which have a flattened shape to help them cling to their host's body. They also have claws on their legs to allow them to grip on tightly.
What is an Endoparasite? Live inside their host's body. An example is the Tapeworm who live in their host's small intestines and feed from their digested meals.
What are the adaptations of a Tapeworm? The food can be absorbed through the Tapeworm's body wall by diffusion. They have a large, thin surface area to diffuse a lot of food and have head hooks and suckers to attach themselves to the intestine wall.
What is Mutualism? Mutualism is a relationship between two organisms where both organisms benefit.
What is a pollution indicator species? An indicator species is one that is particularly sensitive or tolerant of pollution, so that it's presence or abscence can be used as a measure the pollution.
What does burning fossil fuels produce? Sulphur dioxide.
What acids are in acid rain? Sulphuric acid and Nitric acid.
What is the order of least tolerance to sulphur dioxide to most toleranceto sulphur dioxide in Lichen? Shrubby, Leafy and then slightly leafy.
What is Homeostasis? Keeping the internal enviroment stable.
How do the Kidneys keep the water levels in the body stable? If the body contains too much water, the Kidneys produce more Urine. If the body contains too little water, the body produces less Urine.
The control of body temperature is called what? Thermoregulation.
What changes happen to your body if you are too cold and why? You shiver - this releases heat towarm you up. Erector muscles in the dermis contract - trap more air next to skin as insulation. Narrows blood vessles closer to surface - reduce blood flow there to lower heat loss (vasconstriction).
What changes happen to your body if your are too warm and why? You sweat - as when it evapourates it transfers heat from the skin to the surrounding air. Widens blood vessles closer to surface - increases blood flow there to increase heat loss (Vasodilation).
What do receptor cells detect? Stimulus.
What is a stimulus? Anything your body is sensitive to.
What are impulses and where do they normally travel to? Impulses are electrical signals created by receptor cells. They normally travel to the brain.
What does the brain do once it has recieved impulses? Processes the information and coordinates a response. In the response impulses are sent to effectors and these carry out an action. E.g. sweat glands.
How do electrical impulses travel? Along cells called neurones, this is called neurotransmission.
What is the shape of a neurone? Have cell body and long extensions that carry nerve impulses. The dendron has branches at the end 'dendrites' that recieve impulses from receptor cells or other neurones. The impulse moves along dendron, past cell body through axon onto other neurones.
What are nerves? Bundles of neurones packed together.
What is the spinal cord? An organ which connect to the brain and contains many nerves packed together. Together with the brain it forms the Central Nervous System (CNS).
What is the name of the neurones that recieve impulses from receptor cells? Sensory neurones.
What is the name of the neurones that take impulses to effectors? Motor neurones.
What is the name of the neurones found in the spinal cord which link motor and sensory neurones? Relay neurones.
What is the myelin sheath? The fatty layer in neurones surrounding the axon. This helps to insulate the neurone from the surruonding tissue and allows the impulses to travel faster.
What are synapses? A synapse is the small gap between two connecting neurones.The impulses are transmitted across the gaps by a chemical substance called neurotransmitters. Impulses are slowed by snapses however they mean that impulses can only flow in one direction.
What is the reflex arc? The reflex arc is the neurone pathway for reflexes, in which a sensory neurone directly controls a motor neurone. This does no concern conscious thought unlike coordinated responses. E.g. to move your hand out of fire.
What is the name of the glands that produce hormones Endocrine glands.
What is a target organ? An organ that responds to a certain hormone.
Glucagon and insulin are produced by which organ? And what is their target organ? The Pancreas and te target organ is the liver.
What does Insulin do? Causes the liver to take glucose out of the blood and store it as glycogen.
What does Glucagon do? Causes the liver to releases glucose into the blood from the stored glycogen.
What is type 1 diabetes? It is when the pancreas does not produce enough or any Insulin.
How can type 1 diabetes be controlled? Insulin needs to be injected into the subcutaneous fat layer beneath the skn. They also need to not eat too sugary food substances and have regular exercise.
What is type 2 diabetes? It is when cells in a person's body responds less well to insulin.
What may increase the risk of getting type 2 diabetes? High-fat diets, lack of exercise, getting older and being obese.
How can type 2 diabetes be controlled? Changing a person's diet and by increasing the amount of exercise they take.
Responding to a stimulus by growing towards or away from it is called what? Tropism.
Auxins are produced at the tip of a shoot, and haspositive phototrophism, what does it do? They causeelongation of the cells. If they only get light from one direction they move to the other side and elongate the cells there. This means that the shoot will grow towards he light.
What do auxins do in the roots of a plant? They are pulled downwards by gravity and inhibit cell elongation which causes positive gravitrophism - grwoth towards the direction of gravity.
What does the plant hormones called gibberellins do? They cause the starch stored in a seed yo be turned into sugars for energy to grow and stimulate flower and fruit production in some plants.
How does artifical auxin work as weedkiller? It makes plars with broad leaves (the weeds) grow out of controland die without affectingthose with narrow leaves (wheat and grass).
How is rooting powder used? Plant cuttings are dipped into it and the synthetic auxins makes them develop roots quickly.
How is seedless fruit produced? Either the plant is sprayed withplant hormones which cause the fruit to develop but not their seeds. Or small fruit with naturally no seeds are sprayed with gibberellins to increase their size.
How do farmers make use of the hormones that control a fruit ripening? T stop fruit from falling off of trees and getting damaged, to make fruit bigger, to speed up ripening, to ripen unripen fruit just before it reaches shops to make them 'fresh'.
What is a drug? Any chemical substance that changes the way in which the body work, including behaviour is called a drug.
What is a narcotic drug? A drug which makes us feel sleepy.
How do painkillers work? They block some of thenerve impulses, so we feel lesspain.
What is the name of the type of drug that can make the brain imagine things that don't exist. (They can also change our perception of colour, time and space so our senses dont work propery.) Hallucinogens.
What is the name of the type of drug that speeds up the activity of the nervous system by increasing the release of neurotransmitters at certain synapses in the brain? Stimulants.
What is the name of the type of drug that slows down that activity of the nervous system by reducing the release of neurotransmitters at certain synapses in the brain? Depressants
What does addictive mean? That people can become dependent on the drug and feel as though they cannot function properly without it.
Why are some drugs banned for athletes? Because they can make them more alert, decrease their reaction time or help them to become stronger, quicker.
What damage is caused by the tar in cigarettes? wTar can cause cancers in the lungs and mouth. It can also cause lung diseases, emphysema and bronchitis.
What damage is caused by the carbon monoxide in cigaretts? It reduces the amount of oxygen that the red blood cells can carry. This in turn causes: headaches, dizziness, weakness, sleepiness, nausea, vomiting and confusion/disorientation.
What issue is caused by the nicotine in cigarettes? It makes the cigarettes addictive therefore very difficult to give up. An addiction may start after just four cigarettes.
What are the short-term effects of alcohol? - Anxiety - Sexual difficulties such as impotence - Slowed breating and heartbeat - Loss of consciousness - Lowered inhibitions - Impaired judgement leading to accidents and injuries - Suffocation through choking on vomit - Potentially fatal poison
What are the long-term effects of alcohol? - Dmagage to unborn child - Liver disease (cirrhosis) - Kidney disease - Osteoporisis (thinning bones) - Pancreatitis (lead to pancreatic cancer) - Stomach ulcers - Infertility - Heart disease - Raised blood pressure - Strokes - Dementia - Bra
In a transplant a healthy organ is taken from whom? The Donor.
Nmae some ethical issues that could arise from transplanting? Who should get the transplant? Should organs be bought? Should someone who has already recieved one transplant be allowed another? Should alcoholics be given liver transplants?
What are Pathogens? Micro-organisms which cause diseases.
Pathogens come in what forms? Bacteria, Funi, Viruses, Protoctists and Protozoa.
How can Pathogens (diseases) pass between people? Water, food, air, contact, body fluids and vectors.
How does water spread Pathogens? Water may contain bacteria such as those that cause cholera.
How does food spread Pathogens? Food may contain food-poisoning bacteria such as Salmonella.
How does air spread Pathogens? Influenza and cold viruses and TB bacteria are spread in the air, e.g. from coughs and sneezes.
How does contact spread Pathogens? Athlete's foot fungus is usually transferred to skin from moist surfaces such as in a shower or swimming pool.
How do body fluids spread Pathogens? Pathogens like HIV can be transferred in body fluids such as blood on a shared syringe or during sexual intercourse.
How do Vectors spread Pathogens? Houseflies can carry dysentery bacteria from human faeces to food.
What physical barriers do humans have against Pathogens? The skin is a protective barrier as well as the mucus which catches the bacteria and moves it with the cilia.
What chemical barriers do humans have against Pathogens? The skin preduces sebum, lysozyme in tears and hydrochloric acid in stomach.
How do antiseptics work? Antiseptics are chermicals used to attack microbes which might cause diseases. They stop microbes from multiplying.
When do we use antiseptics? To swab a wound or clean skin to stop infection. In hand washes which can prevent the spread of infections from one person to another through contact.
How do antibiotics work? Antibiotics are drugs that are used to control infection. Most bacteria which cause the infections can be controlled controlled by antibiotics however they are not effective against diseases caused by viruses.
When do we use antibiotics? To kill bacteria as an example using Penicillin. To stop bacteria multiplying such as using tetracycline.
How do bacteria gain resistance to antibiotics? Individual bacteria in a population show variation, those who are the most resistant to the antibiotics survive whilst the others die out. If those that are resistant are not killed they will multiply and produce a new infection that will be resistant.
Why do bacteria gain resistance to antibiotics? - High mutation rate of bacterial genes. - Ongoing exposure of bacteria to antibiotics.
What is the issue with bacteria gaining resistance to antibiotics? Antibiotics becomes less effective for treating bacterial infections as many bacteria become resistant to most antibiotics through the same cycle.
Created by: grabm



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