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Test6-chp 43,44,45

Chapter43,44,45 Urinary tract function

QuestionAnswer
aldosterone: hormone synthesized and released by the adrenal cortex; causes the kidneys to reabsorb sodium
antidiuretic hormone: hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland; causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water; also called vasopressin
anuria: total urine output less than 50 mL in 24 hours
bacteriuria: bacteria in the urine; bacterial count higher than 100,000 colonies/mL
creatinine: endogenous waste product of muscle energy metabolism
diuresis: increased formation and secretion of urine
dysuria: painful or difficult urination
frequency: voiding more frequently than every 3 hours
glomerular filtration: plasma filtered at the glomerulus into the kidney tubules
glomerulus: tuft of capillaries forming part of the nephron through which filtration occurs
hematuria: red blood cells in the urine
micturition: urination or voiding
nephron: structural and functional unit of the kidney responsible for urine formation
nocturia: awakening at night to urinate
oliguria: total urine output less than 500 mL in 24 hours
proteinuria: protein in the urine
pyuria: white blood cells in the urine
renal clearance: volume of plasma that the kidneys can clear of a specific solute (eg, creatinine); expressed in milliliters per minute
renal glycosuria: recurring or persistent excretion of glucose in the urine
specific gravity: reflects the weight of particles dissolved in the urine; expression of the degree of concentration of the urine
tubular reabsorption: movement of a substance from the kidney tubule into the blood in the peritubular capillariesor vasa recta
tubular secretion: movement of a substance from the blood in the peritubular capillaries or vasa recta into the kidney tubule
urea nitrogen: nitrogenous end product of protein metabolism
acute nephritic syndrome: type of renal failure with glomerular inflammation
acute renal failure: sudden rapid deterioration of kidney function that is sometimes reversible
acute tubular necrosis: type of acute renal failure in which there is actual damage to the kidney tubules
anuria: total urine output less than 50 mL in 24 hours
arteriovenous fistula: type of vascular access for dialysis ;created by surgically connecting an artery to a vein
arteriovenous graft: type of surgically created vascular access for dialysis by which a piece of biologic,semibiologic, or synthetic graft material connects the patient’s artery to a vein
azotemia: abnormal concentration of nitrogenous wastes in the blood
chronic kidney disease: chronic progressive an dirreversible diseases of the kidneys
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: method of peritoneal dialysis whereby a patient manually performs four or five complete exchanges or cycles throughout the day
continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis: method of peritoneal dialysisin which a peritoneal dialysis machine (cycler) automatically performs exchanges, usually while the patient sleeps
continuous renal replacement therapy: variety of method sused to replace normal kidney function by circulating the patient’s blood through a filter and returning it to the patient
dialysate: solution that circulates through the dialyzer in hemodialysis and through the peritoneal membrane in peritoneal dialysis
dialyzer: “artificial kidney” or dialysis machine; contains a semipermeable membrane through which particles of a certain size can pass
diffusion: movement of solutes (waste products) from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
effluent: term used to describe the drained fluid from a peritoneal dialysis exchange
end-stage renal disease: final stage of renal failure that results in retention of uremic waste products and the need for renal replacement therapies
exchange (peritoneal dialysis): complete cycle of peritoneal dialysis includes fill, dwell, and drain phase
glomerulonephritis: inflammation of the glomerular capillaries
hemodialysis: procedure during which a patient’s blood is circulated through a dialyzer to remove waste products and excess fluid
interstitial nephritis: inflammation within the renal tissue
nephrosclerosis: hardening of the renal arteries
nephrotic syndrome: type of renal failure with increased glomerular permeability and massive proteinuria
nephrotoxic: any substance, medication, or action that destroys kidney tissue
osmosis: movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
peritoneal dialysis: procedure that uses the lining of the patient’s peritoneal cavity as the semipermeable membrane for exchange of fluid and solutes
peritonitis: inflammation of the peritoneal membrane (lining of the peritoneal cavity)
pyelonephritis: inflammation of the renal pelvis
ultrafiltration: process whereby water is removed from the blood by means of a pressure gradient between the patient’s blood and the dialysate
uremia: an excess of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood
urinary casts: proteins secreted by damaged kidney tubules
bacteriuria: more than 105 colonies of bacteria per milliliter of urine
cystectomy: removal of the urinary bladder
cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder
frequency: voiding more often than every 3 hours
ileal conduit: transplantation of the ureters to an isolated section of the terminal ileum, with one end of the ureters brought to the abdominal wall
interstitial cystitis: inflammation of the bladder wall that eventually causes disintegration of the lining and loss of bladder elasticity
micturition: voiding or urination
neurogenic bladder: bladder dysfunction that results from a disorder or dysfunction of the nervous system; may resultin either urinary retention or bladder over activity, resultingin urinary urgency and urge incontinence
nocturia: awakening at night to urinate
overflow incontinence: involuntary urine loss associated with over distention of the bladder due to mechanical or anatomic bladder outlet obstruction
prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate gland
pyelonephritis: inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyuria: white blood cells in the urine
residual urine: urine that remains in the bladder after voiding
suprapubic catheter: a urinary catheter that is inserted through a supra pubic incision into the bladder
ureterosigmoidostomy: transplantation of the ureters into the sigmoid colon, allowing urine to flow through the colon and out the rectum
ureterovesical or vesicoureteral reflux: backward flow of urine from the bladder into one or both ureters
urethritis: inflammation of the urethra
urethrovesical reflux: backward flow of urine from the urethra into the bladder
urinary incontinence: involuntary or uncontrolled loss of urine from the bladder sufficient to cause a social orhygienic problem
urosepsis: sepsis resulting from infected urine, most often a UTI
Created by: jhrobins99