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9th Grade Bio Ch 8

From DNA to Proteins

This type of virus takes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses Bacteriophage
The small units that make up DNA Nucleotides
Model in which two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder Double helix
In DNA, thymine (T) pairs with Adenine (A)
In DNA, cytosine (C) pairs with Guanine (G)
In DNA, adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T)
In DNA, guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine(C)
T pairs with A and C pairs with G base pairing rules
The process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle Replication
A group of enzymes that bond nucleotides together during replication DNA polymerases
Defined by Francis Crick, states that information flows in one direction, from DNA to RNA to proteins central dogma
ribonucleic acid RNA
Chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen-containing base; temporary copy of DNA that is used then destroyed RNA
The process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce a complementary strand of RNA Transcription
enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule RNA polymerases
very large enzymes composed of many proteins that play a variety of roles in the transcription process RNA polymerases
an intermediate message that is translated to form a protein Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Forms part of ribosomes, a cell's protein factories Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein Transfer RNA (tRNA)
The process that converts an mRNA message into a polypeptide Translation
Three-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid Codon
Three _____ signal the end of the amino acid chain Stop codons
One _____ signals the start of translation and the amino acid methionine Start codon
Set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon Anticodon
DNA segment that allows a gene to be transcribed promoter
Helps RNA polymerase find where a gene starts Promoter
DNA segment that turns a gene "on" or "off"; interacts with proteins that increase the rate of transcription or block transcription from occurring Operator
Region of DNA that includes a promoter, an operator, and one or more structural genes that code for all the proteins needed to do a specific task Operon
In eukaryotes; nucleotide segments that code for parts of the protein Exons
Mostly in eukaryotes; nucleotide segments that intervene between exons Introns
Change in an organism's DNA Mutation
Mutation in which one nucleotide is substituted for another point mutation
Mutation involving the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence Frameshift mutation
Agents in the environment that can change DNA by speeding up the rate of replication errors and, in some cases, even breaking DNA strands mutagens
Two people that figure out the DNA structure using models Watson and Crick
Found out that pneumonia bacteria could be transformed by some substance Griffith
These two people used radioactive isotopes and bacteriophage viruses to prove that DNA was the genetic material Hershey and Chase
This person proved that the transforming principle in the bacteria was DNA Avery
These two people used X-ray crystallography to help figure out the structure of DNA Franklin and Wilkins
Sides of a nucleotide Sugar and phosphate
Rungs of a nucleotide Nitrogen bases
Type of bonds holding nucleotide bases together Hydrogen bonds
Enzyme that splits DNA strand down the middle Helicase
2 strands (DNA or RNA) DNA
1 strand (DNA or RNA) RNA
In RNA, Adenine (U) pairs with Uracil (U)
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Ribonucleic acid RNA
Gene expression is controlled in prokaryotes and eukaryotes mainly at ________ The beginning of transcription
Gene expression controlled from many points Eukaryotes
Genes are expressed mainly during transcription Prokaryotes
Proteins contain ______ but very little ______ sulfur; phosphorous
DNA contains _______ but no _______ phosphorous; sulfur
Identified DNA in the nucleus of the cell in 1870 Meishcher
Chromosomes are made of _____ and ________ DNA; protein
Why did scientists think protein was the cell's hereditary material? It's more complex than DNA
Why did scientists think DNA was the cell's hereditary material? It's in the nucleus and had no other known uses
1st step of transcription DNA unzips
2nd step of transcription Code copied onto mRNA
3rd step of transcription mRNA detaches
How are transcription and replication similar? They both copy DNA codes and occur in the nucleus
Transcription ends with the production of _____ RNA
Replication ends with the production of ____________ 2 identical strands of DNA
Why is gene expression regulated in prokaryotic cells? It is simpler in prokaryotic cells than in eukaryotic cells
In prokaryotic cells, gene expression is typically regulated at the start of __________ Transcription
Why do the cells in your body differ from each other? Different sets of genes are expressed in different types of cells
What role do transcription factors play in a cell? They help RNA polymerase know where a gene starts
What is a TATA box? A seven-nucleotide promoter
What is "sonic hedgehog" an example of? A gene that controls the expression of other genes
Which type of mutation affects more genes, a gene mutation or a chromosomal mutation? Chromosomal
What is translocation? A piece of one chromosome moves to a nonhomologous chromosome
What leads to gene duplication? During crossing over, if the chromosomes do not align the segments may differ in size, and one chromosome may have two copies of a gene
For a mutation to be passed to offspring, in what type of cell must it occur? Germ cell
Can DNA polymerase catch and correct every replication error? No
How does UV light damage the DNA strand? It can cause neighboring thymine nucleotides to break their hydrogen bonds to adenine and bond with each other instead
Purines are ____ ring structures Double
Pyrimidines are ______ ring structures Single
Where does DNA replication take place in a eukaryotic cell? Nucleus
When is DNA replicated during the cell cycle? Synthesis
Why does DNA replication need to occur? To assure that every cell has a complete set of identical genetic information
A pattern (a single DNA strand can serve as one for a new strand) Template
What roles do proteins play in DNA replication? Separating DNA strands, holding strands apart while they serve as templates, and bonding new nucleotides together.
What must be broken for the DNA strand to separate? Hydrogen bonds
Why is DNA replication called semiconservative? One old strand is conserved, and one complementary new strand is made.
Human chromosomes have hundred of ______________, where the DNA is unzipped so replication can begin. Origins of replication
DNA polymerase has a _________ function that enables it to detect errors and correct them. Proofreading
What actually does the work of replicating the DNA molecule? Enzymes and other proteins
What is meant by DNA replicates bidirectionally? DNA unzips in opposite directions
Where does DNA begin to come apart when it begins to replicate? In the middle
The free-floating nucleotides are added on to the divided DNA by what enzyme? DNA polymerase
When the new nucleotides are added on, a purine always attaches to a __________ to ensure that the radius is the same for the DNA molecule. Pyrimidine
Purines A and G
Pyrimidines T and c
What enzyme is responsible for checking the accuracy of the DNA molecule? DNA polymerase
DNA replicates at _____ points along the entire length of the DNA molecule. Many
What two scientists figure out the replication of DNA? Meselsohn and Stahl
A disease caused by a point mutation Sickle cell anemia
A disease caused by a deletion resulting in a frameshift mutation Cystic fibrosis
Mutations can add_____ to a population particularly in single-celled organisms Variations
Most non-adaptive mutations are removed by __________ Natural selection
How mutations change phenotypes: May cause premature _____________ Stop codon
How mutations change phenotype: May change ________ shape Protein
How mutations change phenotypes: May change gene __________ Regulation
Mutations may not affect phenotypes: May be silent, particularly if in ___ position of triplet code third
Mutations may not change phenotypes: May occur in _________ region noncoding
Mutations may not change phenotypes: May not affect protein ________ Folding
Prokaryotic cells turn genes on and off by controlling ___________ Transcription
Genes for a related process are grouped together with a _______ that allows the genes to be "turned on or off" Promoter
A section of the DNA called an ________ actually turns the genes on and off. Operator
Gene expression in ________ is more complicated due to specialized cells Eukaryotes
There are no ________ in eukaryotes Operons
Adds the RNA nucleotides RNA polymerase
Translation occurs in Ribosomes
Transcription occurs in Nucleus
Replication occurs in Nucleus
Amino acids are bonded together by _______ bonds Peptide
Base pairs proved by Chargaff
Created by: 100003242820882



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