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Cardio pharm 331

QuestionAnswer
What is hypertension? chronic high BP (@ least 3 visits documented)
What are the ranges for hypertension diagnoses? Normal: less then or equal to 120/less then or equal to 80 Prehypertension: 120/80-139/89 Stage 1 Hypertension: 140/90-150/99 Stage 2 Hypertension: 160</100<
What are the three main causes of hypertension? 1.vasoconstriction-too active sympathetic nervous system 2.too much Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system action 3.Too much fluid
Which two areas of really dense capillary beds are affected by both diabetes and hypertension? Eyes and kidneys
What are the 6 types of drugs used to treat hypertension? 1.Diuretics 2.Beta blockers 3.ACE inhibitors 4.Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers 5.Calcium channel blockers 6.Vasodilators
What is the ending for diuretics? What part of hypertension do they treat? -thiazide Fluid retention
What is the ending for Beta blockers and what do they do? -olol Work to reduce the effect of sympathetic nervous system: slow down heart rate and cause vasodilation
What are the AE for beta blockers? CNS effects (drowsy, dizzy) GI upset Arrythmia Decreased exercise tolerence
What else are beta blockers used for besides hypertension? Angina and arrhythmia
Who should you not give beta blockers to? People with pulmonary problems, COPD, diabetes or thyroid problems
What is the ending for the ACE inhibitors and what do they do? -pril Block conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2: vasodilate and reduce some fluid
What are the AE of ACEI? slight increase in K+ COUGH and itching and rash (angiotensin 2 breaks down bradykinine, so histamine rxns!)
Who shouldn't use ACEI? People with renal failure pg and lact
What are the endings for angiotensin 2 receptor blockers and what do they do? -sartan Block angiotensin 2 receptors! Same as ACEI but without cough, bradykinine getting broken down Results in vasodilation
What are the AE for angiotensin 2 receptor blockers? muscle weakness, hypotension No cough!
What are the Ca+ channel blockers and what do they do? Diliazem block Ca+ channels, vasodilate and prevent smooth muscle contractions
What are the AE of Ca+ channel blockers? bradycardia and edema
What should you not take with Ca+ channel blockers? grapefruit juice!! and cyclosporine
What are the 4 vasodilators listed? Diazoxie Hydralazine Minoxide Nitroprusside (also for angina)
What else are Ca+ channel blockers used for? Angina-prinzemetal only
What is congestive heart failure? Heart no longer able to pump effectively- pooling blood, backing up in veinous system
What are some s/s CHF? splenomegaly hepatomegaly cardiomegaly decreased renal perfusion GI upset
What are the 4 types of drugs used for CHF? 1.vasodilators-Nitro and ACEI 2.Diuretics-fluid removal 3.Beta Agonists 4.Cardiac Glycosides-Digoxin!
What do Beta Agonists do? Stimulate the heart-increase contraction strength
What are the 4 methods of action of digoxin? 1.increase contraction strength of heart 2.decrease renin-fluid loss 3.decrease HR 4.Decrease conduction time in heart
Who should not have digoxin? Acute MI pg/lct ventricular tachycardia or fibrulation
What are the AE of digoxin? Nausea and vomiting important! First sign of toxicity Yellow halos, visual disturbances
What should you monitor when giving digoxin? HR and K+ levels, esp when giving with diuretics
What are the dr-dr interactions to watch for with digoxin? Not to be given with diuretics cholestyramine bleomycin,methotrexate quinidine cyclosporine all the meds that inhibit metabolism could lead to digitoxicity other drugs block absorbtion of digoxin fiber and chy
What is the definition of angina? Chest pain caused by lack of O2 to tissues
What are the three types of angina? 1.stable 2.unstable 3.prinzmetal
What are the three types of drugs used to treat angina? 1.Nitrates (vasodilators) 2.Beta blockers 3.Ca+ channel blockers (prinzmetal only!)
What are the cautions and contraindications for nitrates? caution: absorbs very rapidly! Contra: bleeding problems, head trauma, anemia
What are the cautions with Beta Blockers? Avoid using with diabetics and people with thyroid problems
What drug should you not mix with vasodilators? Any ergot derivatives
What is the most common AE of vasodilators? Pounding headache-rebound hypertension
What is the definition of arrythmia? Abnormal sinus rhythm
What are the 6 types of arrhythmia? 1.tachycardia 2.bradycardia 3.atrial flutter 4.Partial ventricular and partial atrial contractions 5.Atrial or ventricular fibrulation 6.Heart blocks or bundle branch blocks
What is the common AE of all the drugs used to treat arrhytmias? Can also cause arrhythmias
What are the four drugs/types used to treat arrythmias and what do they do? Class 1: lidocaine-block Na+ Class 2: Beta Blockers-depress phase 4 Class 3:Amiordorones-K+ blockers, works on phase 3 Class 4:Diltiezem, Ca+ blockers
What are the AE for amiodarone? Pulmonary and hepatic toxicity Corneal and visual changes arrythmias and cardiac arrest
What are the cautions for amiodarone? Do not mix with digoxin or quinidin, careful with prolonged QT interval, renal or hepatic disease
What are the AE of diltiezem? Bradycardia and peripheral edema
What is the definition of hyperlipideama? too much LDL and triglycerides
What are the 4 types of drugs used to treat hyperlipideama? 1.Bile Acid Sequesterants-cholestyramine, metamucil 2.HMG-COA reductase inhibitors (-statins_ 3. Cholestertol Absorption inhibitors: Ezetimibe 4.Others (-fib-)
What do bile acid sequestrants do? Force you to not recycle bile acids, use blood cholesterol to make new bile acids.
What are the AE of Bile Acid Seq.? malabsorption of fat soluble vitamins, increased bleeding time, GI upset
What should you check when giving Bile Acid Seq? PT and PTT-clotting time
What do the -statins do? Inhibit enzyme that makes cholesterol
What is the main AE of -statins? rhabdomyolysis dark brown urine kidney damage
What should you be careful with when taking -statins? grapefruit juice! (also the Ca+ blockers) Alcohol! Monitor liver enzymes
What are the AE of Ezetimibe? myalgia and arthralgia
What should you avoid when taking cholesterol absorbtion inhibitors? antacids cyclosporins warfarin cholestyramine fibrates
What is the main AE of niacin? (lipid lowering agent) Flushing of face
Wha are the 5 anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs? 1.Asprin 2.Warfarin/coumadin 3.Heparin 4.Low Molecular Wt. Heparin 5.Angiomax, acova, antithrombin
What does asprin do? lowers # of overall platelets
What are the s/s asprin tox? tinnitus, blood in stool
What does warfarin do? prevents new clots from forming, blocks vitamin K
What is the antidote to warfarin? Vitamin K
What does heparin do? prevents prothrobin from becoming thrombin, interferes with the cascade
What are the AE of heparin? hair loss, chills, bruising and bleeding, renal fx impaired, osteoporosis
What is the difference between heparin and l.m.w. heparin? LMW heparin only works on factor Xa-much fewer AE, no bleeding precautiouns
What should you be careful of when on coumadin? Vitamin K in diet-no green leafy veggies Shaving, brushing teeth, careful of bleeding! Don't take with other anticoagulants, asprin, penicillin
What are the three types of anemia? megaloblastic iron deficiency anemia pernicious anemia
What are the drugs used to treat anemia? synthetic erythropoeitins (all -poeit) stimulate RBC synthesis
What are the cautions with the -poetins Allergy to any type of human or mammal cell derived stuff
Normal H and H? female: 36-44/ 12-15 Male: 38-50/ 13-17
Who should not take erythropoeitins? CHF hypertension
Created by: SarahTzipporah