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Chapter 6

Integumentary System

appendages hair, nails, skin glands
Integumentary System skin; sheetlike structure called a membrane
epithelial membranes covers or protects
connective tissue membranes covers joints
skin functions protect, sensation, heat regulation
membrane thin sheetlike structures that cover and protect body surfaces, line body cavities, and cover inner surfaces of hollow organs
Epithelial membrane composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of specialized connective tissue
connective tissue membrane composed of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of tissue
Epithelial Membranes 3 types: 1. Cutaneous 2. Serous 3. Mucous
cutaneous membrane Skin; primary organ of integumentary system. 16% of of body weight. = Epithelial tissue membrane as has superficial layer of epithelial tissue membrane and an underlying layer of supportive connective tissue.
serous membrane Found on surfaces within closed cavities; composed of thin layer of squamous epithelium and connective tissue layer.
basement membrane connective tissue layer of the serous member that holds and supports the epithelial cells
parietal portion serous membrane that lines body cavities
visceral portion serous membrane that covers the surface of organs
pleura serous membranes lining the thoracic
peritoneum serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity
pleurisy very painful pathological condition characterized by inflammation of the serous membranes that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs.
peritonitis inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity
mucous membranes epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior.
mucus thick, slimy material secreted by epithelial cells of mucous membranes
mucocutaneous junction the transitional area that serves serves as a point of "fusion" were skin and mucous membranes meet
connective tissue membranes contain NO epithelial cells
synovial membranes line the spaces between bones and joints that move
synovial fluid thick, colorless fluid secreted by he synovial membrane to lubricate and keep it smooth and slick
epidermis outermost layer of the skin; composed of stratified squamous epithelium.
dermis deeper layer of the two layer of skin; composed mostly of connective tissue
subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) thick layer of loose connective tissue and fat that support the two layers of skin
stratus germinativum cells in the innermost layer of the epidermis which under go mitosis and reproduce themselves and move upward through the layers of skin.
keratin unique protein that is a tough waterproof material that provides cells in the outer layer of the skin with a horny, abrasion-resistant and protective quality
stratum corneum tough outer layer of the epidermis where cells filled with keratin are continually pushed up to
pigment layer stratus germinativum; layer responsible for production of melanin
melanocytes pigment producing cells
cyanosis when blood flow is reduced dramatically and the skin turns a bluish-gray color
vitiligo a skin condition characterized by patchy looking areas of light skin resulting from the acquired loss of epidermal melanocytes
papule/elevated lesion firm, raised lesion less than 1 cm in diameter/warts
plaque/elevated lesion large raised lesion (larger than 1cm in diameter/plaque caused by friction
vesicle/elevated lesion thin walled blister filled with fluid that is smaller than 1 cm (larger than 1 cm = bulla)/non-genital herpes vesicles
pustle/elevated lesion elevated lesion filled with pusacbe
crust/elevated lesion scab; area with dried blood or exudate/scab
wheal (hive)/elevated lesion firm, raised area of irregular shape with a light center/drug-sensitivity hives
macule/flat lesion area distinguished from surrounding skin by color/freckle
patch/flat lesion macule greater than 1 cm/vitiligo
excoriation/depressed lesion area in which epidermis is missing, exposing dermis/scratch
atrophy/depressed lesion skin level depressed, showing loss of tissue/striae
ulcer/depressed lesion craterlike lesion caused by disintegration of skin/bedsore or pressure sore
fissure/depressed lesion linear crack or break from epidermis to dermis/athlete's foot
albinism partial or total lack of melanin pigment in the skin and eyes
areolae skin surrounding the nipples
dermal-epidermal junction junction that exists between the thin epidermal layer of skin above and the dermal layer below; area of contact "glues" them together and provides support for the epidermis
dermal papillae upper region of dermis characterized by peg-like projections; form important part of dermal-epidermal junction
friction ridges found on palms and soles; distinct rows of dermal papillae form roughly parallel rows to help walking; gives human fingerprints
thick skin special category of skin that is thick, hairless and deeply ridged
thin sick most skin which has hair and irregular shallow grooves
striae stretch marks
birthmark developmental malformation of dermal blood vessels
strawberry hemangioma a collection of dilated blood vessels that may initially appear as a bruise at birth and then grow rapidly during the first year into a bright red nodule
port-wine stain vascular birthmark that is permanent and does not fade with age
stork bite birthmark that is dilation of the capillaries at the nape of the neck
lanugo hair of a newborn that is extremely fine and soft
lamellar (Pacini) corpuscle detects pressure deep in the dermis
tactile (Meissner) corpuscle detects light touch
lunula crescent-shaped white area of the nail body nearest the nail root
nail bed layer of epithelium that lies under the nail
onycholysis separation of the nail from the nail bed that begins at the free edge or distal end
sudoriferous glands sweat glands; help eliminate waste products such as ammonia and uric acid.
eccrine glands sweat glands; quite small and all over body
perspiration sweat; transparent, watery fluid produced by sweat glands
pores pin-point size openings on the skin that are outlets of small ducts from the eccrine sweat glands
apocrine sweat glands found primarily in the skin of the armpits and in the pigmented area of the genitals; secrete thicker, milky secretion
sebaceous glands grow where hair grows and secrete oil for the hair and skin; tiny ducts open into hair follicles
sebum secretion of sebaceous glands
blackhead sebum accumulation in and enlarges pore; sebum darkens
acne vulgaris most common form of acne; occurs with more more than 5x increase of sebum during adolescence
functions of skin 1) protection 2) regulate temperature 3)sense organ activity (also waterproof and protects body from fluid loss)
dermatosis any disorder of the skin
dermatitia inflammation of the skin
lesion any measurable variation from the normal structure of a tissue
Classification & Severity of Burns 1) Depth and number of tissue layers involve 2) Total body surface area affected 3) Type of homeostatic mechanisms, such as respiratory or blood pressure control and fluid and electrolyte balance, that are damaged or destroyed
first-degree burn causes minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin (a partial thickness burn)
second-degree burn involves deep epidermal layers and always causes injury to the upper layers of the dermis (a partial thickness burn)
Third-degree or full-thickness burn characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis; tissue damage also extends below the primary skin layers into the subcutaneous tissue
fourth-degree burn extends below the subcutaneous tissue reaching muscle or bone
severity of burn determined by depth of injury and amount of body surface affected
rule of nines method of determining the extent of burn injury; body divided into 11 areas of 9%
Impetigo Skin infection resulting from staphylococcal or streptococcal infection
tinea mycoses/fungal infections of the skin;i ringworm, jock itch, athlete's foot
fissure crack in crease of the epidermis
warts caused by papillomavirus; type of benign neoplasm of the skin
boils/furuncles local staphylococcal infections of hair follicles characterized by inflamed pustules
carbuncles a group of untreated boils that fuse into even larger pus-filled lesions
scabies contagious skin caused by the itch mite; female mite digs under the hard stratum corneum and forms a burrow where she lays eggs
excoriation a skin lesion where the epidermis has been removed as with a scratch
decubitus ulcer pressure sore/bed sore
hives/urticaria raised red lesions called wheals
scleroderma autoimmune disease that affects blood vessels and connective tissues of the skin; causes skin hardening
psoriasis common, chronic skin disease characterized by silvery, scalelike plaques that may remain fixed on the skin for months; develops from an excessive rate of epithelial cell growth
eczema most common inflammatory disorder of the skin; often characterized by inflammation by accompanied by papules, vesicles,crusts
squamous cell carcinoma slow growing malignant tumor of the epidermis; most common type of skin cancer; hard, raised nodules; if not treated will become malignant
basal cell carcinoma often occurs on the upper face; much less likely to metastasize; begins in cells at the base of the epidermis
melanoma malignant melanoma = most serious form of skin cancer; may develop from a pigmented nevus/mole and transforms into a dark, spreading lesion
xeroderma pigmentosum rare, inherited condition where person cannot repair UV damage
Created by: kaad42