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Ch. 5 Science

valance electron the electrons that are in the highest energy level of an atom and that are involved in chemical reactions
electron dot diagram a representation of the valence electrons in an atom,using dots
chemical bond the force that holds atoms together
The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines the ways in which the atom can bond true
when atoms form bonds, electrons may be transferred or shared between atoms true
how is the periodic table organized increasing atomic number
what is the row of elements across the periodic table called? period
what id the greatest number of valence electrons an atom can have? 8
what are elements in the same column of the periodic table called? group/family
what happens to the reactivity of metals from left to right across the periodic table? it decreases becoming more stable
how many valence electrons can non metals have/ four or more
what are 2 ways that nonmetals can combine with other elements by gaining electrons and by sharing electrons
how many valence electrons does a hydrogen atom have? 1
Hydrogen is considered to be a metal false
ion an atom or group of atoms that has become electrically charged
polyatomic ion an ion that is made of more than one atom
ionic bond the attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic compound a compound that consists of positive and negative ions
chemical formula a combination of symbols that represents the elements in a compound and their proportions
subscript a number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound
crystal a orderly, three-dimensional pattern of ions or atoms in a solid
what are two ions that can form an ionic bond sodium and chloride
what happens to an atom when it loses an electron? it looses a negative charge and becomes a positive ion. When an atom gains an electron. it gains a negative charge and becomes a negative ion
what happens to an atom when it gains an electron? it gains a negative charge and becomes a negative ion
when ionic compounds form, the ions come together in a way that balances out the charges on the ions true
for an ionic compound, the name of the negative ion comes first false
what are three characteristic properties of ionic compounds 1. hard brittle crystals 2. high melting point 3. electrical conductivity when melted
in an ionic compound, which ions are attracted to each other every ion is attracted to ions of opposite charge
why do ionic compounds have high melting points? because ionic bonds are strong, a lot of energy is needed to break them. They are all solids at room temperature.
At room temperature, ionic bonds are strong enough to cause all ionic compounds to be... solids
covalent bond a chemical bond formed when 2 atoms share electrons
molecule a neutral particle made up of 2 or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
double bond a chemical bond formed when atoms share 2 pairs of electrons
triple bond a chemical bond formed when atoms share 3 pairs of electrons
molecular compound a compound that is composed of molecules
polar bond a covalent bond in which electrons share are shared unequally
nonpolar bond a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally
alloy a mixture of 2 or more elements, one of which is a metal
metallic bond an attraction between a positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it
atoms of some elements can share three pairs of electrons true
how are atoms arranged in molecular compounds arranged in molecules
how are electrons shared in a nonpolar covalent bond? shared equally
Water molecules are polar true
what are 4 properties of metals heat conductivity, electrical conductivity, luster, and changes in state
what does a metal crystal consist of positively charged metal ions embedded in a "sea" of valence electrons
Created by: 13sthode