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Gullett-Bio-Cells

Bio-Cells

TermDefinition
cell theory the theory that states that all living things are made up of one or more cells, that cells are basic unit of organisms, that each cell in a multicellular organism has a specific job, and that cells come only from existing cells.
cell membrane a double layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.
cytoplasm the region of the cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus.
nucleus in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
prokaryotic cell a cell that has no nucleus and has no membrane-bound organelles: examples include bacteria and archaea.
eukaryotic cell a cell that has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles: examples include plant and animal cells
phospholipid a lipid that contains a phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes.
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
ribosome a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.
mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by tow membranes and that is the site of celluar respiration, which produces ATP
endoplasmic reticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
Golgi apparatus cell organelle that helps make a package materials to be transported out of the cell.
lysosome a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.
cytoskeleton the cytoplasmic network of protein filaments and tubes that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape,and division.
centriole small cylinder shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle; aids mitosis.
cell wall a rigid structure that gives protection, support, and shape to cells.
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs.
vesicle a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell.
vacuole organelle that is used to store materials such as water, food, or enzymes that are needed by the cell.
fluid mosaic model model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane.
selectively permeable condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to pass through the boundary or membrane.
receptor protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
concentration gradient a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance (or membrane)
osmosis the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a membrane the is permeable for the solvent
isotonic a solution with equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution.
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concetration is higher than the solute concentration inside the cell
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concetration is lower than the solute concentration inside the cell
facilitated diffusion the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
active transport the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
phagocytosis uptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle.
exocytosis the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the cell membrane to let the substance out
homeostasis the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment; a constant internal state that is maintained in a changing environment by continually making adjustments to the internal and external environment.
species a group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring; also the level of classification below genus and above subspecies.
Created by: lpgullett