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Acid Base General;

acide base in nursing

pH is based on amount of hydrogen ions
pH normal value 7.35-7.45
pH of 7.35 is acidic
pH of 7.45 is basic
What are the three mechanisms of pH control? Acid, bases, and buffers
What are some buffers of pH? bicarbonate, phosphate, hemoglobin, protein
carbonic acid:bicarbonate 1:20
Where does CO2 come from? carbohydrate breakdown
Where does sufiric acid come from? Protein breakdown
Where do fatty acids and ketoacids come from? incomplete fat breakdown
Where does alctic acid come from? incomplete glucose breakdown
Where do free hydrogen ions come from? Cell destruction containing acids
Where do bicarbonates come from? Ingestion, pancreas, breakdown of carbonic acid
What are some cations (positively charged) ions? Bicarb, chlorine, protein, phophate, sulfate
What are some anions (negatively charged) ions? sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcuim
What charge is carbonic acid? Neutral, yet acidic.
What are the most common buffers? Protein - albumin, globulin, hemoglobin
What is the other type of buffer? Chemical - weak base and acid salt: bicarbonate and phosphate
What is carbonic acid made from? Carbon dioxide and water
The respiratory system is the ______ response to pH changes quicker/faster
How does carbonic acid being a volatile acid help the body? Volatile acids can be excreted by gas. When a nonvolatile acid is present, the excretion of a volatile acid reduces acidity.
The kidney defense takes _____ to act, but is _____ than respiratory defense longer, stronger
Why are the kidneys a stronger defense system? They can release any acid except carbonic acid
What does bicarbonate due if hydrogen ions are high in the body? Reabsorb into circulation to buffer
How does the defense of acid formation work? Phosphate is negatively charged and attracts positive hydrogen ions, then excretes them together in urine.
What does ammonia do for defense? Ammonia (N-H3) from protein breakdown binds to hydrogen and is excreted in urine.
What hapens if more ions need to be released in renal tubules? Ammonia is created to pick up hydrogen ions.
Why is ammonia production important in real acid secretion? Ammonia/ammonium isn't lipid soluble, so it is not reabsorbed into the blood.
WHat are lethal pH values? Below 6.9 Above 7.8
Why does a COPD patient usually have a normal pH value? The kidneys are used to the increased acidity of the lungs, so they are able to handle the pH imbalance better.
Patrial compensation is when kidneys and lungs are out of order, but pH is normal
What is the difference is "-osis" and "-emia"? "-osis" describes the process of reaching the state or "-emia"
Carbon dioxide normal values 35-45
Bicarbonate normal values 22-26
Repsiratory acidosis values pH is dec carbon dioxide is inc bicarbonate is inc
Respiratory alkalosis values pH is inc carbon dioxide is dec carbonic acid is dec
Metabolic acidosis values pH is dec carbon dioxide is dec bicarbonate is dec
Metabolic alkalosis values pH is inc carbon dioxide is inc bicarbonate is inc
Created by: kalensnyder