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Unit 9 Terms

Developmental Psychology

Zygote The fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops and embryo.
Embryo The developing human organism from about 2-weeks after fertilization through the second month.
Fetus The developing human organism from 9 weeks after contraception to birth.
Teratogens Chemical and viral agents that can reach the developing human during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking.
Maturation Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Cognition All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Schema A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
Assimilation Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas.
Accommodation Adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information.
Sensorimotor stage In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to 2 years) during which infants know the work mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Objects Permanence The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived.
Pre operational Stage The stage at which a child learns to use language but does not yet understand the mental operations of concrete logic.
Conservation The principle Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same dispute changes in the form of objects.
Egocentrism In Piaget's theory, the preoportational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Theory of Mind People's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thought, and the behaviors these might predict.
Concrete Operational Stages The stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operation that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
Formal Operational Stage The stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstracts concepts.
Autism A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
Attachment An emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Critical Period An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
Imprinting The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Basic Trust According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Self-Concept Our understanding and evaluation of who we are.
Adolescence The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
Puberty The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Gender The psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
Aggression Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone.
X Chromosome The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y Chromosome The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Primary Sex Characteristic The structures that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary Sex Characteristic Non-reproductive sexual characteristics.
Testosterone The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Menarche The first menstrual period.
Identity Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
Intimacy In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
Menopause The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
Role A set of expectations (normalities) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Gender Role A set of expected behaviors for males and females.
Gender Identity Our sense of being male or female.
Gender Typing The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
Social Learning Theory The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Social Identity The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who an I?" that comes from our group memberships.
Emerging Adulthood For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
Cross-Sectional Study A study by which people of different ages are compared with one another.
Longitudinal Study Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
Crystallized Intelligence Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Fluid Intelligence Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Alzheimer's Disease A progressive neurological disease due to widespread degeneration of brain cells.
Contact Comfort The positive effects experienced by infants or young animals when in close contact with the mother.
Authoritarian Parenting A restrictive parenting style in which the parent or caregiver stresses obedience.
Authoritative Parenting A collaborative parenting style in which the parent or caregiver encourages a child's autonomy and independence, still placing certain limitations.
Permissive Parenting A relaxed parenting style in which the parent or caregiver behaves toward the child in a non-punishing, accepting and affirmative manner.
Created by: APPsychology
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