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Chapter 42 hormones

chapter 42; table 42-1. hormones and their actions.

QuestionAnswer
What are the releasing and inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus? Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH); Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH); Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
What are the actions of the releasing and inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus? Controls the release of pituitary hormones
What is Somatostatin and where is it released from? Inhibits growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone and released from the hypothalamus and pancreatic islet cells.
What hormones are released from the Anterior Pituitary? Growth hormone (GH); Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Luteinizing hormone (LH); Prolactin
What major action does Growth hormone(GH)do and where is it released from? 1. Inhibits growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone 2. Stimulates growth of bone and muscle, promotes protein synthesis and fat metabolism, decreases carbohydrate metabolism. Released from the Anterior Pituitary.
What major action does Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) do and where is it released from? Stimulates synthesis and secretion of adrenal corticol hormones. Released from the Anterior Pituitary.
What major action does Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) do and where is it released from? Stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone. Released from the Anterior Pituitary.
What major action does Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) do for FEMALES and where is it released from? Female: stimulates growth of ovarian follicle, ovulation. Released from the Anterior Pituitary.
What major action does Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) do for MALES and where is it released from? Male: stimulates sperm production. Released from the Anterior Pituitary.
What major action of Luteinizing hormone (LH) do for FEMALES and where is it released from? Female: stimulates development of corpus luteum, release of oocyte, production of estrogen and progesterone. Released by the Anterior Pituitary.
What major action of Luteinizing hormone (LH) do for MALES and where is it released from? Male: stimulates secretion of testosterone, development of interstitial tissue of testes. Released from the Anterior Pituitary.
What is the major action of Prolactin for FEMALES and where is it released from? Prepares female breast for breast-feeding. Released from the Anterior Pituitary.
What hormones are released from the Posterior Pituitary? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH); Oxytocin
What major action does Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do and where is it released from? Increases H2O reabsorption by kidney. Released from Posterior Pituitary.
What major action does Oxytocin do and where is it released from? Stimulates contraction of pregnant uterus, milk ejection from breast after childbirth. Released from the Posterior Pituitary.
What are the hormones released from the Adrenal cortex? Mineralocorticosteroids (Mainly aldosterone); Glucocorticoids (Mainly cortisol); Adrenal androgens (Mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione)
What major action does Mineralocorticosteroids (Mainly aldosterone) do and where is it released from? Increase sodium absorption, potassium loss by kidney. Released from Adrenal cortex.
What major action does Glucocorticoids (Mainly cortisol) do and where is it released from? Affect metabolism of all nutrients; regulates blood glucose levels, affects growth, has anti-inflammatory action, and decreases effects of stress. Released from Adrenal cortex.
What major actions does Adrenal androgens (Mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione)do and where is it released from? Have minimal intrinsic androgenic activity; they are converted to testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the periphery. Released from the Adrenal cortex.
What hormones are released by the Adrenal medulla? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What major action does epinephrine do and where is it released from? Serve as neurotransmitters for the sympathetic nervous system. Released by the Adrenal medulla.
What major action does norepinephrine do and where is it released from? Serve as neurotransmitters for the sympathetic nervous system. Released by the Adrenal medulla.
What hormones are released by Thyroid (follicular cells)? Thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
What major action does Thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)do and where are they released from? Increase the metabolic rate; increase protein and bone turnover; increase responsiveness to catecholamines; necessary for fetal and infant growth and development. Released from the Thyroid (follicular cells).
What hormone is released from Thyroid C cells? Calcitonin
What is the major action of calcitonin and where is it released from? Lowers blood calcium and phosphate levels. Released from the Thyroid C cells.
What hormone is released from the Parathyroid glands? Parathormone (AKA Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What is the major action of Parathormone (or PTH)? Regulates serum calcium levels. Released from the Parathyroid glands.
What hormones are released from the Pancreatic islet cells? Insulin; glucagon; somatostatin
What is the major action of insulin and where is it released from? Lowers blood glucose by facilitating glucose transport across cell membranes of muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Released from Pancreatic islet cells.
What is the major action of glucagon and where is it released from? Increases blood glucose concentration by stimulation of glycogenolysis and glyconeogenesis. Released from the Pancreatic islet cells.
What is the major action of somatostatin and where is it released from? Delays intestinal absorption of glucose. Released from the Pancreatic islet cells.
What hormones are releases by the Kidney? 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D; Erythropoietin (EPO); Renin
What is the major action of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and where is it released from? Stimulates calcium absorption from the intestine. Released from the Kidney.
What is the major action of Renin and where is it released from? Activates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Released by Kidney.
What is the major action of Erythropoietin (EPO) and where is it released from? Increases red blood cell production. Released from the Kidney.
What hormones are released by the ovaries? Estrogen and Progesterone
What is the major action of estrogen and where is it released from? Affects development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics. Released from the ovaries.
What is the major action of progesterone and where is it released from? Influences menstrual cycle; stimulates growth of uterine wall; maintains pregnancy. Released from the ovaries.
What hormone is released by the testes? Androgens (Mainly testosterone)
What is the major action of Androgens (Mainly testosterone) and where is it released from? Affect development of male sex organs and secondary sex characteristics; aid in sperm production. Released by the testes.
Created by: 1506420102